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Urban sprawl at the rural fringe: Analysis of morphological effects of sprawl on rural form in contemporary Tehran metropolitan area; a case study of Tarasht Village, Tehran, Iran.
Topic: Alteration of natural disturbances due to urbanization
Text: Physical and spatial changes of urban areas with a rural and historical base can be a considerable challenge in metropolitan areas of countries with ancient settlement background. There are several examples of such areas in Iranian huge cities like Tehran which is formed from a network of villages connecting to each other whilst Tehran's sprawl within last 5 decades. Tarasht is an instance from those rural areas where has been surrounded and then occupied by Tehran`s expanding territory during that period, and has faced significant changes in main natural and physical structure. In this research, with a descriptive-explorative method, changes of rural form, in terms of natural and built-environmental context, under consequence of a sprawling growth of Tehran has been examined. Changes in agricultural lands, built-up areas, indigenous structures, and their corresponding basis from legislative system are core concerns of the study. Main source of analysis in is based upon interpretations using aerial photos from each decade within last mid century which have been verified through a local survey from inhabitants of Tarasht village.

Flow Variability in Urban Vs. Rural Streams of an Urbanizing Landscape of Piedmont Province, North Carolina
Topic: Alteration of natural disturbances due to urbanization
Text: Urbanization modifies the land surface by replacing vegetation and pervious soil surfaces with impervious materials. This process decreases infiltration into soils, delays or inhibits ground water recharge, and increases the amount of pollutants and volume of and rate at which water enters streams. Impervious surfaces in urban areas channelize storm water runoff into surrounding streams and change the timing, magnitude, and frequency of low and high flow events. These permanent alterations in the natural hydrologic regime commonly result in increases in the intensity and frequency of flash floods. Utilizing long-term streamflow data from both urban and rural streams in two watersheds of the Piedmont, NC, this study investigates the relationship of the variability of stream flow to changes in land cover. The approach involves a comparative analysis of long-term daily stream discharge characteristics of a highly urbanized watershed (Little Sugar Creek, Charlotte, Mecklenburg County, NC) and a less-urbanized watershed (Long Creek, Bessemer City, Gaston County, NC) in a similar geographical, geological, and hydrological setting using various flow indices. Degree of imperviousness ranges from 5% in less-urbanized to 90% in a highly urbanized watershed. The highly urbanized Little Sugar Creek watershed exhibited significantly higher flow frequency, decreased streamflow distribution, and increased daily discharge when compared to the less-urbanized watershed. Frequency of events greater than the 10th-percentile flow shows 55.21% increase (38.99 events per year in Little Sugar Creek and 25.12 events per year in Long Creek) in a highly urbanized stream, frequency of daily flow corresponding to annual peak flow is about two times in Little Sugar Creek stream in comparison to the Long Creek stream. The mean and median stream flow values are 19.17cf/s and 5.10cf/s in the Little Sugar Creek and 27.77cf/s and 16cf/s in Long Creek stream. Low mean and median flow represents the urbanization process. The results of this study suggest that urbanization and associated land cover change play significant roles in altering natural streamflow regimes and increase the magnitude and frequency of extreme flow events. Keywords: Streamflow, urbanization, flow indices.

Using Public Participatory Modeling to Build Bayesian Belief Networks to Identify Lands Suited for Conservation, Working Forests, Agriculture, and Development.
Topic: Application of ecological research in land-use planning
Text: In Maine, providing research and development opportunities, vibrant communities, and environmental quality has been identified as an important economic development strategy. While 17% of the State’s land is protected from development, much of it remains as part of the working landscape producing wood fiber for the State’s forest products sector, food and forage under agricultural production, and open space for recreation. Thus, land use decisions involve multiple stakeholders, agencies, experts, and decision makers with different perspectives on how best to protect and enhance economic, environmental, and community assets. We engaged collaborators through the development of surveys and workshops modeled after Public Participatory Modeling (PPM) concepts and Structured Decision Making. We used the Delphi method to help collaborators identify biophysical and socio-economic metrics important for future land use changes. We used these metrics to create GIS data layers that we used as inputs into Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN). The BBNs enabled us to identify areas suited for: 1) working forests; 2) agricultural production; 3) ecosystem protection; and 4) future commercial and residential development. The suitability maps created in this process show commonalities and conflicts between these lands. The BBNs will serve as sub-models in a future Cellular Automata model that defines transition rules that will ultimately be used to detect drivers of land use change and generate different scenarios of future change. The tools developed will better inform land use planning for both conservation and development. The PPM workshops will increase stakeholder capacity to develop, understand and react to alternative futures. We also expect to see increased collaboration, expanded social capital, and better-targeted development and conservation proposals. To the extent that these outcomes are realized, we would expect to foster incremental improvements in quality-of-place and more sustainable rural economies across the Northern Forest region.

Urbanized ecosystems: Proof of Concept
Topic: Application of ecological research in land-use planning
Text: Urbanization is the defining ecological phenomenon of the twenty-first century. Urban areas are among the largest anthropogenic uses in terms of appropriation of land, energy, materials, and biological primary production, as well as in the alteration of the biogeochemical cycles of carbon, water, and nitrogen. Despite their significance in these respects, coherent descriptions and analyses of urban areas regarding the flux and cyclic processes of energy, materials, information and costs are relatively scarce. There exists an opportunity to investigate urban areas as analogous to ecosystems, thus allowing a complex systems approach to be applied to the planning and management of built environments. Similar to how an ecologist studies natural environments within the hierarchal scale of an ecosystem, this novel approach is based on the investigation of urban areas as ecosystems onto themselves, or as urbanized ecosystems. Such an approach is scalable and transferable to neighborhoods, communities and regional applications. The National Science Foundation (NSF) has long since recognized the important role of ecological science in furthering the understanding of urbanized ecosystems as evidenced by the Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program. As such, LTER created a socio-ecological theoretical framework that provided the basis for narrowscope research questions to be nested within each other, allowing one to proceed from broadscope to increasingly more narrowscope questions. Following this hierarchical progression, the intent of this presentation is to conceptualize urbanized ecosystems within this socio-ecological framework, so as to provide a basis for informed planning and policymaking. From this conceptualization, the investigation focuses on how does one model an urbanized ecosystem in terms of its associated energy, material, monetary, and information fluxes and relative to various temporal and spatial scales, so as to provide a basis for informed decision- and policymaking. Towards this end, this presentation presents a methodology, Urbanized Ecosystems™ (UrbEcoSys™), developed as a proof of concept application for the Village of Oak Park, IL, which was modeled as a dynamic and interrelating complex ecosystem. The extent of this 2009 study was based on scoping, inventorying, and assessing Oak Park’s critical variables and relationships, as represented by the flux and cyclic processes of energy, materials, costs, and information. The resultant system model conceptualized the Village of Oak Park as an urbanized ecosystem, so as to allow a more formalized level of inquiry. From this conceptualization, baseline metrics and alternative scenarios were developed relative to their alignment with the village’s overall sustainable vision and policy. The intent was to support and enhance an informed decision- and policymaking process, which then could be prioritized within the municipal budget’s allocation of finite revenue and expenditures.

Rivers as Systems: Implications for Sustainable Policy and Management
Topic: Application of ecological research in land-use planning
Text: Our understanding of the functioning of rivers as systems, including the importance of connectivity to groundwater, floodplains, and between upstream and downstream river segments, flow regime, geomorphology,and other factors, has grown significantly over the past twenty years. At the same time, water policy and management have not evolved to match our growing scientific understanding of rivers as systems and the ecosystem services they provide. The limits and liabilities of current approaches to water policy and management are becoming apparent throughout the Southeast and beyond as population growth and development place ever higher demands on limited water resources, and ongoing land use changes further disrupt the functioning of ecosystems and the provision of ecosystem services. This presentation will explore the disconnect between current policy and management practices and what we are learning about river systems, and identify opportunities for different, more sustainable approaches to land and water policy and management that better reflect our understanding of river ecosystems, and more accurately account for the beneficial services they provide.

Predicting the spatial distribution of human-black bear interactions across an urban area
Topic: Application of ecological research in land-use planning
Text: Interactions between humans and black bears (Ursus americanus) are increasing throughout North America. Understanding the spatial distribution of incidents will help predict conflicts in future housing developments and help create management plans and ordinances that reduce conflicts in the future. We used human-bear incident data (i.e., phone complaints and conflicts) collected in Missoula, Montana by Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks from 2003-2008 to examine the attractants and human impacts of incidents, and develop a model that predicts the spatial probability of incidents. We combined the locations of black bear sightings (n = 307), other incidents (e.g., bear was seen feeding on garbage; n = 549), and sites where proactive management actions were carried out (n = 108), and compared them to 5,000 random locations using logistic regression. Based on literature, we used distance to forested patches, distance to water, and housing density as variables in our model. The overall nature of incidents was diverse. Garbage (38%), fruit trees (10%), and bird feeders (7%) were the most common attractants at incident sites, and in some cases incidents did result in threats to human safety (9%) and property damage (7%). All variables were significant in the predictive model, and the model performed well at discriminating the relative spatial probability of incidents (rs = 0.782; P < 0.01). The probability of incidents increased when residents lived close to forested patches, close to water, and in intermediate housing densities (approximately 6.6 houses/ha). Our results suggest that spatial patterns in human-black bear interactions are predictable and these patterns can be used to understand the potential for conflict in developing areas and to identify areas where preventative management is necessary.

SETTING CONSERVATION PRIORITIES FOR POOL-BREEDING AMPHIBIANS IN URBANIZING LANDSCAPES: COMPARISON OF MODELS
Topic: Application of ecological research in land-use planning
Text: Amphibians are in global decline and many of their wetland habitats are under-protected by land conservation efforts and government regulation. Pool-breeding amphibians are dependent upon wetlands for breeding and frequently move long distances to adjacent habitats to fulfill other life history needs. Consequently, conservation planning for pool-breeding amphibians has focused on defining functional habitat patches for local populations that includes wetlands and surrounding habitats. Recent advances for setting conservation priority using spatial models have taken into account three primary factors, (1) habitat patches, (2) landscape resistance, and (3) changing land uses. Landscape resistance is particularly important component of habitat conservation models for pool-breeding amphibians because of their seasonal migrations between breeding pools and adjacent habitats used for foraging, hibernation, and maintaining water balance. This study compares two recently published approaches to wetland conservation designed to prioritize pools and associated habitats: threat analysis and resistant kernels. I compare model assumptions, data sources, outputs, and conservation implications for a single study area. Threat analysis incorporates potential habitat modified by landscape resistance derived from fine-scale land use/land cover data, development pressure derived from US Census data, and levels of current land protection. Resistant kernels incorporate density of wetland habitats and degree of connectivity among them due to landscape resistance. I employed the same habitat and landscape resistance data for both models. Nearly half of the study area (46%) had exactly the same outputs for threat analysis and resistant kernel (difference = 0) and 80% of the landscape had very similar outputs (difference between outputs -1> <+1). Because the models were run using the same data inputs, differences between the outputs were attributed to model structure and assumptions. Several of the areas with the strongest negative difference values (resistant kernels were identified, but areas of high threat were not) were on lands already protected by easements and other conservation mechanisms. Threat analysis emphasizes priority for lands having a combination of high habitat value, strong pressure for conversion to development, and lack of current protection. Resistant kernels cluster habitats for protection based on density and connectivity but do not take into account future threats. Thus, threat analysis outputs were more inclusive than resistant kernels as 97% of the differences were neutral or positive. While differences were slight, it is important to engage stakeholders in the modeling process so they understand how assumptions influence conservation outcomes. Priority setting models may be especially useful for seasonal woodland pools that are under-protected by wetland regulations and thus require attention by land trusts and other local conservation efforts.

Bird diversity indicates ecological value in urban home prices
Topic: Application of ecological research in land-use planning
Text: Open space and greenspace contribute positively to urban home prices. Yet as economists and planners discover that not all greenspace provides the same economic benefit, urban ecologists have long known that not all greenspace provides the same ecological benefits. This work examines directly whether the use of bird counts and species diversity as an indicator of ecological value also significantly explains improvements in urban housing prices. We collected information from approximately 400 homes sold during 2008-2009 in Lubbock, Texas from local Multiple Listing Service (MLS). We extracted information on key housing features such as square footage and age of house, and others, along with seventeen neighborhood designations defined by the Lubbock Realtor Association. We then conducted breeding bird point counts in neighborhoods with home sales and recorded total numbers and species of birds. We classified birds as ubiquitous (e.g., house sparrows, starlings, great-tailed grackles and Eurasian collared doves) or desireable (e.g., American robin, blue jay, mourning dove, northern mockingbird and western kingbird). We constructed a bird diversity instrument as the product of the total number of birds observed times the number of desirable urban species observed at each site. Across the data, the number of desirable species dominated total variation in this index. Finally, we recorded data on the percentage of tree cover using Google Earth for the immediate blocks surrounding each parcel sold. This relatively accessible data still provided rich results. Model selection (using AICc) comparing models with tree cover, presence of a neighborhood park, and neighborhood dummy variables, indicated that the presence of local parks (traditional greenspace) did little to predict values for the ecological indicator. The model selected, attributing the entire weight to the model, included tree cover and 12 of 17 neighborhood designations. Home price for each sale was regressed against the predicted value of the bird index and MLS structural features. The predicted bird instrument applied to home price estimation was highly significant (t = 8.12, P < 0.0001). An AICc comparison of models with and without the instrument attributed the entire weight to the instrumented model. Expected values of structural features conformed closely to market values reported by local real estate professionals. The coefficient value of this instrument predicts the expected improvement to mean home price due to the addition of one more desirable species was $33,493. The predicted coefficient for this ecological indicator explains a significant share of price differences among neighborhoods. However, not all greenspace is ecological space: an expensive established neighborhood around a local golf course showed little home price improvement. Our predicted bird diversity is a simple and useful instrument to assess ecological amenities that urbanites are willing to pay for.

Prioritization of potential riparian buffer locations in an urbanizing, agricultural Midwestern (U.S.A.) watershed
Topic: Application of ecological research in land-use planning
Text: The establishment of riparian forest buffers is a common practice in agricultural watersheds, designed to mitigate the negative effects of runoff on water quality. However, it is often infeasible to create buffers around all affected streams given landowner desire to maximize production and limited conservation funding. Prioritization of potential buffer locations is therefore required to optimize runoff interception versus the conservation investment. The Clear Creek (IA) watershed is an urbanizing agricultural watershed in eastern Iowa in which water-quality concerns have motivated conservation efforts. We used a novel set of GIS tools to identify priority riparian buffer locations in the watershed, based on slope, land-cover, and on the drainage of upland agricultural fields into unforested streamside locations. We identified 79 total priority buffer locations that drained approximately 17 km2 of cropland. 17 patches were within 10 m of 2008 riparian forest cover and were largely concentrated near the main stream channel. Conservation efforts in this region could focus on expanding existing forest cover to encompass nearby priority locations. Most of the remaining patches were greater than 100 m away from 2008 riparian forest cover, and generally occurred in two distinct regions lacking substantial forest cover. The more northerly region fell within an area of rapid urbanization, while the more southerly region fell within a matrix of cropland. Conservation efforts in these regions could focus on the creation of riparian forests through initiatives such as CRP and urban forest programs, serving the dual purpose of improved water quality and habitat provision. The results of this study inform ongoing attempts in the watershed to mitigate the effects of intense anthropogenic land-use, and may be used by state and local agencies to prioritize riparian locations for targeted conservation measures.

Spatial patterning of urbanization and avian influenza in Egypt, 2007-2008
Topic: Ecosystem impacts on human communities (e.g., human health, economic well-being, political action)
Text: Land use change encompasses changes to the landscape by people such as urbanization, agricultural usage, and deforestation/reforestation. These processes are implicated in the occurrence and spread of disease vectors and pathogens worldwide due to direct changes to the structure and function of ecosystems, loss of biodiversity, increasing population densities, and the shifting interactions between humans, livestock, and wildlife. Egypt provides an interesting case study for the synergistic risk factors accompanying land use change that can lead to disease outbreak. Since 2006 Egypt has witnessed 85 human cases of avian influenza, 27 of which have been fatal. Most recently 2 cases were reported on August 31st, 2009. There have also been over 1000 poultry outbreaks and millions of birds have been culled. The reasons Egypt is at particular risk to avian influenza include its high population growth and dense inhabitation along the Nile River, the dependence of many Egyptians on backyard poultry farming, and the interactions of wildlife with domestic poultry. Avian influenza, H5N1, outbreaks and ensuing poultry culls have affected commercial and backyard flocks, with a significant impact on food security and Egypt’s socioeconomic situation. Furthermore, due to the extent of backyard poultry rearing, a large proportion of Egyptians are at risk of exposure to H5N1. This study aims to investigate the spatial patterning of avian influenza in Egypt to tease out the relationship between the extent of urbanization and incidence of disease. The study will utilize existing, publicly available data of human and bird cases of H5N1 in Egypt and remote sensing and GIS capabilities to quantify urbanization in Egypt. The streams of data to be incorporated in a GIS are the frequency of poultry outbreaks, density of poultry, density of humans, and the categorization of land use into urban, peri-urban, and rural areas. Geo-spatial analysis of these data streams will allow for a comparison to assess where H5N1 outbreaks are occurring with the highest frequency. The main hypothesis is that peri-urban areas, areas at the perimeters of urban areas, are at the highest risk for H5N1 outbreaks. Understanding the spatial patterning of disease outbreaks according to the extent of urbanization will inform interventions that address the economic livelihoods, food security, and health of Egyptians. Furthermore because diseases such as avian influenza have the prospect of becoming transmissible between humans, disease outbreaks in situ may also have global ramifications.

Trees are Us
Topic: Ecosystem impacts on human communities (e.g., human health, economic well-being, political action)
Text: Trees are US The growing interest in ecology and environmental science has heightened our attention to tress especially our attention to the fact that the future of humanity is inescapably tied to the future of trees. There is ample evidence to show that this is indeed the case and there is no doubt that more and more evidence will be produced. It is not entirely my objective in this paper to produce more evidence to reinforce the evidence that is already available. I do not want to dwell on the usefulness of trees to us and to other living organisms. My primary objective to make the case that trees are us. In part, I will do this by deciphering the message that that Billie Holiday, the African American musician and poet, calls to our attention in her song “Southern Trees”. I will attempt to bring forth a definition of a tree that coincides with the definition of a human being -a definition that challenges the tradition understanding of what it is to be a human behind as well as the tradition of understating what a tree is -the definition that is given to us by botany and biology, generally. The coincidence of definitions is not accidental. It is a coincidence that affirms the identity of human beings and trees. Evidently, there will be those who will argue that this claim is logically absurd. But it is not self-evident that logic is the ultimate or the sole arbiter of what can be and cannot be said, or what is or what is not. I will try to show how music and poetry has much to teach us not only about ourselves but also about trees. Even if I am not successful in this undertaking, at least, I intend to provoke us into thinking who and what we are as well as what trees are. How we think about ourselves in relation to trees and vice versa inevitably bears on our destiny. If it is demonstrated that trees us we have an ethical obligation to treat trees as ethical subjects.

Reducing and Reusing Troubling Runoff
Topic: Ecosystem impacts on human communities (e.g., human health, economic well-being, political action)
Text: As the city of Mobile, Alabama continues to grow so does the amount of impervious surface. Whether it is parking lots, rooftops, sidewalks, or roads, they all shed an extensive sum of rainfall causing Mobile’s downtown storm water to back flow into city streets. Obviously this poses severe problems for the city such as safety, damage to historical sites throughout the downtown region, or even economic downfall. The purpose of this design is to drastically reduce the amount of surface runoff into the stormwater system in such a way that is beneficial to the surrounding downtown environment as well as allowing the captured water to be reused as grey water in downtown buildings. There is an incredible opportunity to achieve these goals while also heightening the pleasant and intriguing experience of meandering through this prestigious city. The system which is being proposed consists of a number of catchment basins attached to the exterior walls of selected structures, mainly an outdated six story concrete parking garage. Being that the structure is stable and unattractive sets the perfect stage for such a project to be implemented. This wall catchment system consists of 20 multi shape and size catchment basins ranging from 10’(L)x4’(D)x3’(H) to 30’(L)x2’(D)x1’(H). The water which is collected in the highest catchment system receives both rainfall as well as the parking deck rooftop runoff. Each basin is planted with an appropriate selection of native vegetation which can withstand ample amounts of water as well as filter contaminants that enter from the rooftop. Once the higher basins fill, water overflows into lower basins repeating the same process. After moving through the catchment system, water is then directed into the interior office space for use as grey water. The installation of a wall catchment system would appear to a passerby as a simplistic but delightful arrangement of native plant species growing among what once was a solid and unfriendly façade. Whereas in reality, the plants are producing oxygen, decreasing the urban heat island affect, attracting native wildlife, providing an area for a range of ecosystems to occur, reducing storm water runoff, cleansing runoff, presenting an attractive downtown art piece, and adding to the regeneration of the city. Mobile has an opportunity to shift into a position of influence for surrounding cities and states by progressing to a more efficient and resourceful city. By using a system which completes and possesses such a high number of positive attributes, other municipalities could certainly begin to shape their own regions around Mobile.

Anthropogenic impacts on ecosystems, ecosystem services and human health along the urban-rural continuum
Topic: Ecosystem impacts on human communities (e.g., human health, economic well-being, political action)
Text: Urbanisation and the rapid transition of ‘rural’ to ‘urban’ brings multiple challenges for local authorities, planners, development practitioners, farmers, and local communities. Some of the challenges include waste disposal, wastewater treatment, disaster risk reduction (i.e. bushfire, flood, mudslides), and food security. The risk and severity of these challenges depend not only on broader geographical location (for example north or south, tropical or temperate, or low, medium or high income county), but also on the specific location along the urban-rural continuum. If that continuum is under rapid transition, as in many so called ‘developing countries’, then such risks and vulnerabilities are likely to be substantially increased. Anthropogenic impacts to ecosystems, ecosystems services and human health are complex and multi-dimensional but clear patterns related to industrial location, population distribution, regional topography, climates, and the type and location of ecosystem services are identifiable. This paper illustrates a systems planning and design approach for the urban-rural continuum to: 1) Identify health risks and health risk pathways, 2) Develop health risk analysis tools (e.g. contaminant pathway mapping), and 3) Develop health risk mitigation tools (e.g. land zoning/crop selection strategies). Data is used from urban and peri-urban case studies including recent research from China, Ghana, Ethiopia, India, Nigeria, Uganda and United Kingdom and Vietnam, using an interdisciplinary approach. The findings have clear potential for reducing anthropogenic risk in ecosystems and ecosystem services thus contributing to human health improvements, reductions in human vulnerability and the building of resilient communities along the urban-rural continuum.

Green for Life!—Implementing environmental education within the urban –rural interface
Topic: Ecosystem impacts on human communities (e.g., human health, economic well-being, political action)
Text: Environmental education plays a key part in improving the quality of life and education of our youth. Green building and living practices have been suggested to improve the quality of the water and the overall health of the watershed. Green for Life! demonstrates how a demonstration site of stormwater integrated management practices (IMP’s) is used to assist in the implementation of an environmental educational program. The pilot program works with existing after school curricula at a local community center to stimulate academic achievement in science and arts through the age appropriate hands-on building of “green retrofits” to a local community center. The Green for Life! program is two-fold. First, the program provides green retrofits to the community center and secondly, a green education curriculum will empower children and students to take their new “green knowledge” home and to learn how “greening” the community will help to make communities stronger. The pilot program targets after school students [GreenKidz for Life! (K-8) and GreenTeenz for Life! (9-12)]. The project is funded by a SWaMP grant, Saugahatchee Watershed Management Plan grant (ADEM, 319 Clean Water Act). This program emphasizes the understanding of core principals of environmental education and why they are important to childhood education and family development. It builds capacity in support of the pending legislation of No Child Left Inside Act (NCLI Act -- H.R. 2054 / S. 866; pending). The Green for Life! program acts as a stimulus to combat sedentary lifestyles in children in an underserved community while laying a foundation to promote water quality, environmental education and green building education.

Better Storm System Practices for Mobile, Alabama
Topic: Ecosystem impacts on human communities (e.g., human health, economic well-being, political action)
Text: Currently the area around Bienville Park of Mobile, Alabama, is within the 100-year flood plain while the parking lot directly west of Bienville Park (Joachim Lot) is located within the 500-year flood plain. This suggests that the area is more susceptible to seasonal flooding, and due to the current deficiencies of the existing storm drain system, the area is prone to flooding. The existing system currently overflows during heavy rains implying that an auxiliary storage or retention system would be beneficial to the Mobile’s downtown area in order to make the storm drain system more effective in preventing floods. Another issue affecting a majority of the downtown Mobile area is the abundance of concrete buildings and pavements. This large amount of concrete leads to a low albedo factor. The albedo of an object is its surface’s reflectivity, specifically when dealing with the rays from the sun. This means that the city of Mobile does not do a good job of reflecting the sun’s rays, therefore causing the city surfaces to retain most of the absorbed heat during the day, maintaining higher temperatures and cooling costs. In order to combat the issues previously stated I am suggesting that the city of Mobile: 1. implement bladder cisterns to capture excess storm water runoff 2. include more shaded areas via native trees to combat the heat island effect By installing bladder cisterns throughout the city, some of the excess water flows are expected to be diverted to the cisterns instead of the storm drains. The benefit of this implementation would be two fold. First the cost having to remove the existing storm drain and replacing it with a larger one is eliminated, and second, the water collected through the cisterns would be stored underground to be redistributed throughout different hydrological systems within the city. This would allow some relief to the existing water service by providing an additional location to pull water from. Another benefit from reducing the amount of flood waters on the streets would be a decrease in the amount of city erosion stemming from flooded streets, this means there would be less sediments deposited to Mobile bay. Finally, the redesigned parking lots of Mobile would include native trees that help shade the location resulting in a higher albedo factor. Thus reducing the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and reduce cooling costs during warmer seasons. By adding trees to the parking lots, the rate at which rain water enters the storm drains would also be reduced.

Park Park-Fabric Landscape-Landscape Systems Give Form to Architecture
Topic: Ecosystem impacts on human communities (e.g., human health, economic well-being, political action)
Text: How can an understanding of landscape systems give form to architecture? In natural systems nothing is wasted, everything is interconnected and self-sufficient simultaneously. How can we model our buildings after nature? Three natural systems are key components to modeling nature: water, vegetation and energy. The landscapes that we have constructed for cars exemplify the problems we have ecologically. Cars are major producers of greenhouse gases contributing to global warming. Highways and parking lots denude the vegetative habitat and lead to excessive water runoff polluting watersheds. The Park Park project is a mixed use parking facility and shops which incorporates the natural systems of water, energy and vegetation. Park Park puts the paradise back into the pavement.

The Application of Green Infrastructure in Planning and Designing for the Green Street Project in the City of Mobile
Topic: Ecosystem impacts on human communities (e.g., human health, economic well-being, political action)
Text: There are several issues need to be addressed in the city of Mobile, including: poverty, aging infrastructure and flooding. The studio seeks to develop innovative planning and design techniques for civic hydrology within Mobile’s highly urbanized downtown core and mitigate impact on Mobile Bay by incorporating low impact best management practices. The objective of this project is to provide enhancement toward improving quality of life in the downtown urban center by reducing urban floods through inventive storm water management design. I propose to plan and design a system of green infrastructures to collect and clean the runoff water at the different hubs in the downtown Mobile and distribute them through links which would be constituted of the underground or on-the-ground water channels. The destination of the system, which is also serving as an important hub, is the most valuable resource in the city of Mobile---the waterfront area. I choose Bienville Square and its parking lot as my further design test area, which is located in the center of downtown Mobile. The runoff without certain direction cannot be discharged in time and some vacant spaces are not taken into use functionally. The historic fountain in the center of Bienville Square cannot work a lot because of the large amount of water consumption. The site has not enough attraction to slow down people’s paces due to the lack of green. So I propose to design a series of green infrastructures to modify all the conditions mentioned above. The redevelopment of the city will promote its attraction for tourism and economic activities based on its historic background. Revitalization of the Mobile Bay Urban Area can bring educational, ecological and economic significances to both local and regional area. Inevitable urban development and flooding issues need to be addressed in the environmentally protective and economically prudent way. The planning and design process and approaches are as follows: 1)Assessment and research of existing conditions 2) Case study analysis 3) On-site design charrette 4) Design concepts, graphics and text deliverables that reflect design testing and feasibility analysis, including scenario development and design overlays 5) Feasibility analysis and suitability analysis. In order to further modify the planning and designing the Green Street Project in the city of Mobile, Alabama, there is still a lot of work to do. We have to do much more research on the nonpoint polluted water in different areas of the city’s downtown and calculate the rainfall amount in diverse situation in order to better manage the local water issues by using appropriate green infrastructure system. In addition, doing research on the city’s civic infrastructure systems and topographies in both large scale and small scale in the city would have great significance, since we could find the best way to distribute the rainfall and connect the hubs with links in the whole green infrastructure system.

GENERAL PLANNING BASED ON THE CONNECTION OF CITY FABRIC AND GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE IN MOBILE, ALABAMA
Topic: Ecosystem impacts on human communities (e.g., human health, economic well-being, political action)
Text: My planning project is based on a theory of using vegetated facilities to manage storm water runoff and creating a natural and livable environment in Mobile City, AL. Part of Dauphin Street and Mobile Bay are selected as the typical sites for my planning intervention to make green system melting into the city pattern. My planning intent focuses on how to create a green system to manage stormwater in a more effective, economic and sustainable way. The basic method of my planning is using a theory of Natural Drainage Systems (NDS) which is constituted by green streets network to manage stormwater. Traditional approach which combined sewage and stormwater pipes is not healthy for the watershed or economic development. Green streets are designed by using planted swales adjacent to sidewalk or roadway pavement to simulate the work of pipes. This system attempts to mimic the natural system to decrease runoff and also purify stormwater. The approach is used in many different ways; include green roofs, permeable sidewalks, and rain gardens. In the first place, I got to know about what sustainable design is through case studies. Next Geographic Information System (GIS) help me find out how the land form appears, the land using situation and some existing conditions of stromwater flow in Mobile City. Also, I crate a model with the software of Sketchup about my site to show the specific details. My design retrofits stormwater facilities between driveway locations and while providing more on-street parking. Vegetated curb extensions or sidewalk stormwater planters are the most common types of green streets. These facilities can collect stormwater runoff and allow water to soak into the ground as soil and vegetation filtering pollutants. Because of the limited width of Dauphin Street, stormwater facilities were placed on only one side of the street with a shed profile directing runoff to the landscape features. Additional stormwater that is generated from Dauphin Street will be collected into the pipes underneath and transferred to the rain garden which is on my main site. Also, I chose plants that can effectively absorb toxic components from stormwater pollutants such. In addition to treating stormwater, green streets help calm traffic, improve pedestrian safety, and add green space to neighborhoods. The east end of Dauphin Street is my main design site. Due to the railway and highway break the integrated relation of commercial district and waterfront, there is no strong bonding between city fabric and the site. I added a bridge to connect the two parts, which is designed by putting infrastructures on it, so the landscape will be connected as a whole. This project reflects general planning of a green infrastructure system for the city of Mobile, AL. The next step of this project is the development of specific techniques and details while considering the feasibility of economic factors and finding a practical way to realize the goal.

Exploring Decision Making Practices in Sustainable Development Assistance Organizations: Achieving Environmental Justice in Rural Appalachia
Topic: Ecosystem impacts on human communities (e.g., human health, economic well-being, political action)
Text: Principles of Environmental Justice advocate that stakeholders at grassroots levels must be included in decision making processes, and have true opportunities to influence decision outcomes, if justice is to be achieved. Yet, evidence suggests that even within sustainable development projects lauded for success, grassroots participants are sometimes left out of the decision making mix. This paper explores the relationships between organic farmers at grassroots levels and the staff and board members at a sustainable development assistance organization that aims to support them. In-depth interviews with farmers, staff and board members illustrate that staff and board members’ attempts to create efficient decision making processes often result in organizational structures that exclude growers or offer only limited and symbolic inclusion. The result may be detrimental to participants’ achievement of environmental and economic success as well as failure to live up to the promise of just sustainable development.

FROM RURAL-POOR TO URBAN-POOR?: CAMPESINOS´PERCEPTIONS OF URBAN GROWTH AND CHANGES IN THE NATURE AND STATUS OF POVERTY IN THE PERIPHERY OF MEXICO CITY.hn
Topic: Evaluating changes to ecosystem goods and services along urban-rural gradients
Text: The peripheral area of Mexico City is the habitat of diverse low-income groups. Among those groups are the campesinos (people with rural background engaged totally or partially in agricultural livelihoods). Some studies have suggested that campesinos are very vulnerable to urban growth, since population expansion has put severe pressure on their agricultural land, which, despite its marginal value, is used to produce crops for either semi-commercialisation or subsistence. The purpose of this paper was to explore changes in campesinos’ self-perceptions of poverty status and how such changes were linked to assets, strategies and urban growth. Three villages in Chalco municipality, which is situated in the peri-urban fringe of Mexico City, were selected as the study area. Based on the development of a conceptual framework, this study considered three interconnected elements underpinning the complexity of poverty: multi-dimensionality, interrelationships and dynamism. Findings indicated that most campesinos perceived changes in their communities as consequence of urban growth. These changes were associated with population growth, deterioration of the social structure, changes in land use, changes in access to public services and deterioration of the natural environment. Although most changes seemed to have negative effects on households, most campesinos did not connect them with their own context of poverty, and, in particular, with the factors that increased, reduced or perpetuated poverty which clustered around food, income, employment, family, tangible assets and psychological wellbeing. At first glance it seemed that, although both processes (poverty and urban growth) decreased the quality and quantity of resources at community and household levels, they were unrelated. Nevertheless, the further exploration of mechanisms that generate changes in the perceived status of poverty made evident the linkages between urban growth and poverty. The local contextualised causal networks indicated that changes in the nature and availability of resources in the study area, due to the growth of the MAMC, modified accessibility to food, tangible assets, family labour, jobs, income and psychological wellbeing, which were identified as the key elements that determined changes in the perceived poverty status. These changes motivated campesinos to implement a series of strategies to get access to resources. Such strategies depended on the type of assets endowed (and functionality), needs and priorities. In some instances, strategies implemented were successful in securing key assets, leading families to perceive themselves as non-poor. In other instances, however, campesinos were not able to secure key assets, leading them to the self-perception of poverty. Consequently, it is concluded that, urban growth ás well as strategies selected contributed significantly to movements in and out of poverty in campesinos´ households.

The influence of contemporary landscape structure vs. landscape legacy on the persistence of native plant diversity and exotic species distribution along an urban to rural gradient.
Topic: Evaluating changes to ecosystem goods and services along urban-rural gradients
Text: Land use change and invasions by exotic species are widely recognized as the primary drivers of biodiversity loss. However, few studies have focused on how landscape structure of rapidly urbanizing regions is impacting the spread of exotic plant species and persistence of native plant diversity. Using the rapidly growing metropolitan region of Charlotte, North Carolina as a case study, we examine the hypothesis that landscape structure of the built and natural environment are linked to patterns of native and exotic plant diversity in forests along the urban to rural gradient. We sampled 105 randomly located plots for woody species presence and abundance at 25 forested sites stratified across three land use types (urban, suburban and rural). We investigated multi-scale effects of building and road density on landscape patterns of woody species diversity using linear regression analyses and controlling for spatial autocorrelation. Road density within 1 km negatively influences native diversity. Building density within 1 km positively influences exotic abundance in urban sites (r2= .473), and building density within 200 m for suburban sites (r2=.340). Native richness and diversity are highest in rural areas and decrease with increasing urbanization. Unexpectedly, we found that mean exotic abundance is significantly higher at rural sites as compared to urban and decreases with increasing urbanization. We hypothesize that historical factors such as past agricultural land use and patterns of forest connectivity over time influence native diversity and exotic species distributions potentially confounding the effects of contemporary landscape heterogeneity. We have mapped land cover at multiple time steps from 1938 to 2006 at each forest sampling site to examine the influence of historical landscape structure and composition on the persistence of native diversity and exotic abundance and will report the results of our analysis. One anticipated outcome of this work is a better understanding of how landscape legacy vs. contemporary landscape heterogeneity affect exotic species spread and plant species diversity.

UNDERSTANDING THE EFFECTS OF RURAL-URBAN LINKAGES IN PERI-URBAN AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS IN TWO METROPOLITAN AREAS IN MEXICO: A COMPLEX SYSTEMS APPROACH
Topic: Evaluating changes to ecosystem goods and services along urban-rural gradients
Text: Urban areas around the world have shown a significant increase in size and population. Whereas urban growth creates economic, social and cultural opportunities, it also brings several problems, such as food insecurity, unemployment, low incomes, illegal settlements, conflicts over land and water, lack of basic infrastructure, contamination of soil, air and water, and lack of political action to counteract these negative events. This is particularly relevant for peri-urban areas, since most urban growth is taking place in the peri-urban interface. Changes occurring in the peripheral areas of cities due to rural-urban linkages bring to peri-urban agricultural systems more threats than opportunities, because they affect the nature, availability and functionality of assets required for agricultural production. Such changes transform the way farmers organize themselves to get access to resources, generating new forms of organization and altering even more their peri-urban surroundings. On their side, peri-urban agricultural systems can be considered as complex, since their behaviours emerge from non-lineal relationships among its components and between these and the environment. In order to gain a better and deeper understanding of the dynamics among urban and rural areas, and peri-urban agricultural systems for decision-making purposes, this paper introduces the empirical evidence of the application of a framework based on complex systems approaches in both the metropolitan areas of Mexico City and Morelia, Michocan State, Mexico.

Assessing eco-physiographical factors of urban and rural sprawl in Missouri
Topic: Evaluating changes to ecosystem goods and services along urban-rural gradients
Text: Increasing human population growth is driving expansion of natural resource development and associated increases in impervious surfaces. Recent research has used impervious surface as an indicator of sprawl, but surface mapping has rarely been used at state or national levels due to the lack of accurate, efficient, and cost-effective approaches. Using an established approach, we assessed impervious surface area in Missouri during 1980, 1990, and 2000. We conducted accuracy assessment of 2000 impervious surface using high resolution air-photos with a total accuracy of 86%. During 1980–2000, 129,853.2 ha of land were converted to impervious surface. While sprawl was prominent on urban fringe during 1980s with 23,674.5 ha of land converted to impervious surface compared to 22,918.2 ha in 1990s, there was a temporal shift in the rural landscapes in the 1990s with 48,079.7 ha of land converted to impervious surface compared to 35,180.8 ha in 1980s. Our research goes beyond the usual hot spots of metropolitan areas and includes rural landscapes where more damage was done to the ecosystem due to the low density development and larger affected areas. Keywords: Impervious surface growth; Sub-pixel classification; Urban and rural sprawl; Missouri

Considering A Comprehensive Ecosystem Services Framework Across the Wildland to Urban Interface
Topic: Evaluating changes to ecosystem goods and services along urban-rural gradients
Text: The empirical literature of ecosystem services now spans several decades, and includes classifications, typologies, and economic valuations. As the definition, estimation, and valuation of ecosystem services proceeds, it is important to recognize the variability of services across the landscape gradient from wildland to urban. This variability is expressed as relative importance of each of the broad classes of services (e.g. the Millenium Ecosystem Assessment’s four-part classification of supporting, provisioning, regulating, and cultural). Variability is also partially dependent on the socio-cultural context of different places along the gradient. For instance forest-generated services differ in kind and extent between larger, pristine forest tracts of more rural areas and smaller patch forests, or even individual trees, within cities. As economic markets are constructed or emerge to enable services exchange and trading, full consideration of all potential services is important. This paper will first provide a concise overview of ecosystem services classification. It will then proceed to itemize ecosystem service types and extent as associated with different conditions along the wildland urban interface. The paper will largely emphasize metro nature services that are provided by nearby nature and green infrastructure in high density built environments. Nearly 40 years of psychosocial research demonstrates that urban landscapes provide extensive human health and well-being benefits. Yet urban-based ecosystem services seem to be ever more narrowly described as environmental or biophysical functions, such as air quality and stormwater management. Meanwhile the evidence-based range of psychosocial benefits and services are not readily categorized using classifications that were derived largely while envisioning wildland or greenfield situations. Socially oriented services are not provisional, and are usually attributed to a cultural category, yet may be more accurately assigned as regulating and supporting services. This paper seeks to expand the conceptual basis of urban ecology and the role of nature in cities by addressing ecosystem services in two ways. First, a broader array of social and health oriented services will be described within the context of an adjusted ecosystem services classification that more directly acknowledges urbanized landscapes, and the full complement of human benefit provided by metro nature. Preliminary methods for economic valuation of human health and well-being services will also be proposed.

Using ecosystem service values to reduce spatial cost disparities in the interface: the Lower Churchill Hydro Project in Labrador
Topic: Evaluating changes to ecosystem goods and services along urban-rural gradients
Text: Increases in demand for electricity and sustainable energy in urban and suburban areas can lead to the construction of generation infrastructure in remote regions. This creates a spatial disparity in costs and benefits, particularly with respect to ecosystem services. The proposed Lower Churchill Hydroelectric Project (LCHP) in central Labrador, Canada, consists of two dams on a boreal river, and would generate electricity that would be transmitted away from the project site, to markets on the island of Newfoundland and elsewhere. Many of the project benefits, such as more-abundant electricity, will accrue to non-residents. Labradorians will reap benefits as well, in the form of employment, but the ecosystem services costs of the project will be borne entirely in Labrador, a fact not addressed in the current Environmental Impact Analysis (EIA). Even with seemingly environmentally benign technology such as hydroelectric generation, ecosystem service impacts can range from methylmercury contamination and methane release to loss of traditional indigenous hunting areas. While many of these potential ecological effects are addressed in the EIA for the project, they are not counted as costs. Despite considerable improvements in valuation methodology, guidance on its inclusion in the CBA and EIA process, Canadian Law does not require CBA for EIAs, only for regulatory change. In the light of this absence, ex-ante EIAs often do not provide clear descriptions of impacts. We argue that the project analysis for LCHP should include ecosystem service valuation as part of a project Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA). To accomplish this end, we have designed a set of choice experiments to value some of the ecosystem service effects and address the cost-benefit disparity. We believe that by counting ecosystem service impacts as costs, and by conducting the requisite valuation research, potential customers, Canadian citizens, and the project proponents would all be better informed. Hopefully this improved information will lead to more informed choices in terms of power generation, design of power infrastructure and rates, and conservation efforts.

Urban Forests and Carbon Flux: Cities as Windows into the Future
Topic: Evaluating changes to ecosystem goods and services along urban-rural gradients
Text: Carbon flux measurements and carbon dioxide concentrations were taken along an urban to rural gradient from Baltimore, Maryland, to the New Jersey Pine Barrens. These gradients incorporate the effects of urban vegetation, CO2 emissions from energy use, the effects of land use, as well as natural disturbances and forest management in forested lands and in heavily vegetated non-forest lands. The urban tower in Baltimore is in a mixed deciduous forest, and monitors carbon flux dynamics and carbon dioxide concentrations in this urban/suburban environment. The three rural towers in the Pine Barrens have monitored carbon flux under management and disturbance. Results are presented showing the effects of anthropogenic cycles associated with the work week, land use, vegetation cover, prescribed burning, defoliation and inter-annual climate variability. Using an eddy-covariance system, we obtained net ecosystem exchange (NEE) values stratified according to wind direction from areas of different vegetation cover and land use composition. Both water flux and carbon flux estimates were closely correlated with the percent vegetation cover estimated from remote sensing. However, annual net CO2 exchange at the Baltimore LTER flux site indicated that this urban site was a net source from 2004-2008, with the largest losses occurring during the winter months, due to high CO2 emissions from fossil fuel energy use as well as leaf-off conditions of the deciduous tree cover. A seasonal comparison of the NEE estimates from the urban tower in Baltimore to similar rural forests in the NJ Pine Barrens, allowed us to estimate the amount contribution from fossil fuel emissions in comparison to apparent ecosystem respiration. Despite the large emissions signal, the urban tower showed high C uptake during the growing season due to the high percentage of vegetation cover surrounding the tower. This research shows the range of C losses that can be expected across an urban to rural gradient under the influence of anthropogenic emissions, land use, forest management and natural disturbances. Urban forest benefits and ecological services, primarily carbon sequestration and energy conservation are discussed.

REPRODUCTION OF EASTERN BLUEBIRDS (SIALIA SIALIAS) IN RELATION TO LAND MANAGEMENT AND FOOD RESOURCES IN NORTH-CENTRAL FLORIDA
Topic: Evaluating changes to ecosystem goods and services along urban-rural gradients
Text: Conservation biologists recognize that modern farmlands represent critically important, but largely unsuitable, land area needed for protection of global biodiversity resources. So much land is under cultivation and close to increasingly limited natural areas that conservation cannot succeed without increasing the overall biodiversity holding capacity of farmlands. We evaluated the responses of wildlife populations [Eastern Bluebird (Sialia sialis)] utilizing both natural and cultivated lands in the urban-wildland gradient of North-central Florida to reveal issues influencing whether conservationists can – under the best conditions (sustainably managed farmlands) – responsibly promote farmlands as wildlife habitat. In 2007, we tested for the effects of land management (reduced-impact farms [e.g., organic], conventional farms, and natural control areas) on the reproductive success and breeding behavior of bluebirds using standardized nest boxes we provided. Farmland bluebirds began breeding earlier and produced more clutches and eggs than bluebirds in natural areas yet produced the same total number of fledglings over the breeding season. In 2008, we compared arthropod prey availability in addition to land management influences on bluebird reproduction. Prey was more bountiful but more unstable on farms; higher mean prey biomass was correlated with early nesting but higher variation in prey biomass was correlated with lower hatchling production in first broods. In comparison to natural areas, farmlands varied from marginally suboptimal (2007, a dry year) to surprisingly poor habitat for breeding bluebirds in a wet year (2008). Because bluebirds and other native insectivorous bird species are significant consumers of agricultural pests (lepidotera, orthoptera), the ability of farmland systems to support viable wildlife populations conveying critical ecosystem services is a larger sustainability issue - not just a biodiversity conservation issue. Future research and monitoring of reproduction and health of wildlife populations on farmlands is needed to determine the full potential for food-production lands to support sustainable human-dominated ecosystems.

Phenology and Physiology of an Urban Heat Island
Topic: Evaluating changes to ecosystem goods and services along urban-rural gradients
Text: People in cities require the sustained provisioning of many ecosystem services. In this talk we review the environmental conditions produced by North American cities, including climate, emissions, socioeconomic inequities, and water quality. We focus primarily on the urban heat island in Durham, North Carolina, and how this heat island changes throughout the year. Can the loss of urban tree canopy explain these heat island effects? Can urban trees solve the problems of heat and reduced air quality? To answer these questions, we compare basic tree physiological calculations to geospatial measurements of urban-induced environmental changes. We also present a few studies on the socioeconomic inequities of environmental conditions of North American cities.

Terrestrial carbon dynamics across gradients of urbanization
Topic: Human influences on ecosystems (direct and indirect stressors)
Text: Most of our global population and its CO2 emissions can be attributed to urban areas. The process of urbanization changes terrestrial carbon stocks and fluxes, which, in turn, impact ecosystem functions and atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The relationships between urbanization and ecosystem function are governed by complex interactions and feedback mechanisms between human choices and ecological processes. Most research to date has focused on urban carbon emissions, or separately on urban vegetation carbon exchange. Thus, we are currently lacking the empirical data and evidence of mechanisms linking urban patterns and ecosystem function that are critical to advance urban sustainability efforts. Using the Seattle, WA and Boston, MA regions as contrasting case studies, this paper explores the relationships between terrestrial carbon exchange and land cover across urban to rural gradients. Micrometeorological, biometric, and remote sensing methods are combined to characterize the relationships between urban land covers and vegetation across gradients of urbanization.

Effects of land use/cover on carbon storage near Apalachicola, FL
Topic: Human influences on ecosystems (direct and indirect stressors)
Text: Rapid coastal development coupled with a growing population exerts additional pressure on coastal ecosystems. The effects of urbanization on ecosystem function, specifically carbon storage in soils and vegetation, were examined in an area of hastening development along the Gulf Coast near Apalachicola, FL. Differences in carbon storage among natural pine forests, pine plantations, urban forests, urban lawns, and forested wetlands were studied. An analysis of all land use/cover types revealed that forested wetlands have the greatest capacity to store soil and total ecosystem (soil + vegetation) carbon. In addition to the other benefits that forested wetlands provide, their capacity to store carbon and thus influence biogeochemical cycling warrants their protection. A unique result of this study was greater carbon storage in urban ecosystems than in natural forests and plantations. Urban forests had the highest ANPP of any of the land use/cover classes and stored roughly twice as much carbon in soils as natural forests and plantations. Higher soil and vegetation carbon in urban forests and urban lawns compared to natural forests and pine plantations may be a result of more frequent fires in the latter two classes. The low native soil carbon of this region (wetlands excluded) coupled with recent fires (both natural forests and plantations) and understocking (plantations) have led to smaller pools of carbon in comparison to urban areas. County-level land use change predictions suggest that as urbanization continues along Florida’s Gulf Coast, declines in ecosystem carbon storage are possible but can be minimized by protecting forested wetlands and incorporating patches of remnant forests within urban areas.

A Proposal for the Restoration and Enhancement of Mobile’s Relationship with the Mobile River: The Peoples Wharf
Topic: Human influences on ecosystems (direct and indirect stressors)
Text: My planning/design proposal attempts to repair not only the underlying cultural manifestation that is built upon a history of centralization and technocratic neglect and misuse of our water resources, but also to provide an opportunity for diversification of Mobile’s working waterfront district. Its primary objective is to simply put forth the question as to whether or not implementation of a “Green Streets Initiative”, without first addressing existing issues with limited accessibility and use of the Mobile River, is an appropriate response to address the current impairment of the receiving waters of the City of Mobile. Numerous researchers and thousands of studies have concluded that there is little question regarding the potential for adverse acute and chronic impacts urban stormwater poses to receiving waters. While contemporary “green” and/or “alternative” best management practices (BMP’s) offer hope for better stormwater treatability, infiltration, and attenuation, they do not address the physical, cultural, and social disconnect that currently exist between urban communities and their surrounding water resources. The City of Mobile, Alabama is no exception to this rule, having almost fully severed any and all reasonable public access to the Mobile River with automobile, rail, port, and civic infrastructure. Central to the project is the reclamation, reformation, restructuring, and reprogramming of a portion of the Alabama State Docks downtown container terminal. The proposed plan attempts to support growing evidence that the City of Mobile’s working waterfront community can and should embrace additional recreational and functional uses that provide an unimpeded connection to the Mobile River. The renewed “connection” between the citizens of Mobile and the Mobile River would provide a tangible reality to the detriment caused by conventional stormwater infrastructure. Therewith, it would serve as a daily reminder of the ecological connectivity and complexity presented by the urban waterfront interface. Only then would it be possible for local cultural, social, economic, and political values to be reassigned to generate the support necessary to further implement additional retrofitting of Mobile’s stormwater infrastructure (as currently proposed in Mobile’s “Green Streets Initiative”). Elements of this proposal include 1) reclamation and redesign of a portion of the Alabama State Docks, 2) lane reduction and crosswalk enhancement of South Waters Street (I-165) as it fronts the Alabama State Docks and the Outlaw Civic Center, and 3) implementation of contemporary “green streets” retrofit of existing stormwater infrastructure of downtown Mobile. The theoretical framework for such elements is tested using existing condition assessments (via geographic information system data provided by the City of Mobile), case study evaluation, historical reference, and alternative design utilizing plan, section, and perspective.

Impact of Urbanization on Water Quality in Northern Georgia
Topic: Human influences on ecosystems (direct and indirect stressors)
Text: Northern Georgia, especially the Atlanta Metropolitan area, has being experienced rapid urban sprawl over decades. A study of water quality, land use changes, and population growth trends in several watersheds of northern Georgia since the 1970s has been conducted to examine the impact of urbanization on water quality through GIS and statistical analyses. GIS analyses are used to delineate sub-watersheds using Digital Elevation Models for water sampling sites and to derive urbanization indicators such as urban lands and population density for each sub-watershed. Statistical analyses are used to examine, quantify, and compare the relationships between water quality parameters and urbanization indicators and to find good predicators of water quality changes in response to the spatial and temporal variations of land use patterns. Results from this study will contribute to a better understanding of the impact of long-term land use changes caused by urban sprawl on water quality.

Stakeholders’ perceptions of the negative drivers of ecosystem change: the case of the lands within and around El Yunque National Forest
Topic: Human influences on ecosystems (direct and indirect stressors)
Text: Conservation literature increasingly emphasizes the importance of including different stakeholders for developing initiatives and actions that support ecosystem services. A first step towards developing such efforts and actions requires knowing stakeholder understanding of ecosystem services and drivers of ecosystem change. This study describes stakeholder understanding of the negative drivers influencing the ecosystem services provided by El Yunque National Forest (EYNF) in Puerto Rico. Four groups of stake holders took part in this study: scientists, forest managers, municipal planners, and community leaders. Participatory listing and sketch mapping techniques were used to elicit participant’s understanding of negative drivers of ecosystem and ecosystem services change, along with the spatial occurrence of these drivers. The analysis showed that urban expansion in the periphery of the forest was identified by all groups as the principal driver negatively impacting ecosystem and ecosystem services. This agreement among stakeholders provides a venue to increase awareness of the impact of urban expansion on forest ecosystem services and to start dialogue towards developing actions to minimize such impacts. In terms of the spatial distribution of urban/built up expansion, participants rightly identified areas of high urban and built-up expansion, mostly those occurring in the northern portion of the forest. However, there is an incomplete knowledge of the process as it occurs in other areas in the periphery of EYNF. This could affect intervention, policy, and decision making regarding land use and cover around EYNF.

Conservation Democracy: Ecology, Democratic Theory, And National Forest Management Under The Healthy Forest Initiative
Topic: Human influences on ecosystems (direct and indirect stressors)
Text: National forest management in the United States has traditionally included public participation in agency decision-making. Under the Bush Administration’s 2002 Healthy Forest Initiative, the rules governing citizen involvement were substantially modified. A consequence of this was that the US Forest Service was able to propose more commercial forestry in US National Forests with less public oversight and environmental review previously mandated by the National Environmental Policy Act. This combined with other rule changes allowing use in sensitive areas with “extraordinary circumstances” that were previously off-limits to commercial activity. This North Carolina case study explores the effects of the Healthy Forest Initiative on citizen participation and environmental management in the Pisgah, Nantahala, Croatan, and Uwharrie National Forests.

Impacts of current use value property tax policy on land use change decisions in Georgia
Topic: Human influences on ecosystems (direct and indirect stressors)
Text: Abstract: Due to economic development and population expansion, land use change, especially from rural use to developed intensive use, has become an inevitable environmental change of the twenty-first century. Though driven by maximizing profits or utilities, the final decisions for landowners on land use conversion are vastly influenced by public policy, market conditions, and demographics. A variety of studies can be found to analyze the effects of public policies and government programs on land use conversion; however, few studies attempted to quantify effects of property tax policy on land use change. Property tax is the primary revenue source for local government and most public school systems in the United States and the property tax deduction has been ranked as the top preference for government-sponsored programs for nonindustrial private forest landowners in the Midwest and as the second top in the Southeast as a tax relief. In this study, a random parameter logit model is pursued to examine how property taxes influence land use and land use change decisions in Georgia based on the first-order Markov transition probabilities between five major land use categories using the panel data of USDA Natural Resources Inventory (NRI) sample plots. The results demonstrate that property taxes could significantly influence landowner’s land use decisions, and rural lands will decrease more by comparing scenarios with or without the current use valuation program.

Assessment of Effects of Socio-economic Factors on the Farm Tree Diversity (Agroforestry) in Pokhare Khola Watershed, Dhading, Nepal
Topic: Human influences on ecosystems (direct and indirect stressors)
Text: This paper analyzes effects of socio-economic factors on diversity of farm trees and contribution of agroforestry in meeting forest products needs of rural households (HH) in Pokhare Khola watershed (536 ha), Dhading district, Nepal. Questionnaire survey, key informant interview, direct field observations and group discussions were conducted to gather required socio-economic data and ANOVA used to analyze data. Home garden, agrisilviculture, agrohortisilviculture and silvopastoral system are the agroforestry systems practiced to meet diverse needs and to uplift socio-economic condition of the people. Number and species of trees in farms depended on socio-economic and environmental factors. Larger land holdings (40.6 species per HH), more livestock (34.2), less fragmentation of lands (33.3), Brahmin/Chhetry ethnicity (31.9) and commercial farming system (30.7) were associated with higher tree diversity. Farmers have protected and managed natural or planted fodder trees in -and –around their homesteads and farms and have planted species with multiple uses. Quantity of tree products collected from agroforests depended on households’ socio-economic condition as rich collected more than poor due to their large livestock and land holdings. Dependency of rich households was more on agroforests (75.1% for fuelwood, 88.8% fodder and 26.9% timber) whereas poor on community forests for most forest products. Appropriate scientific management of trees creates positive influence on crops and also, helps conservation of watershed by reducing pressure on it and therefore, is recommended.

The Impact of State Urban-Rural Composition on Environmental Policy: 1970-2008
Topic: Human influences on ecosystems (direct and indirect stressors)
Text: In this paper we examine the significance of urbanization with respect to voting on environmental policy in the United States Congress. While other researchers have broached this subject, only one of these studies examines whether or not the urban-rural composition of the voters in a given state is related to environmental voting. Anderson and Mizack (2006) find that states with higher population densities have higher “scores” for congressmen on environmental issues, ceteris paribus. These scores are developed by the League of Conservation Voters, an organization that, in part, examines how often a House or Senate member votes in relation to the desired position of the LCV. The more supportive of the suite of bills comprised each year by the league, the higher the score a congressman receives. Our analysis follows the line of enquiry set out in Anderson and Mizack (2006), but is unique in three respects. One, our analysis looks not only at a cross-section of states, but also those same states over the period of 1970-2008. Two, we proxy political support for the environment by averaging the LCV scores of each states’ two Senate members. Three, we use the percentage of urban dwellers in the state rather than population density per se, to determine the impact, if any, on the environmental scores of the states two senators.

The impact of forest to urban land conversion on water quality entering a drinking water supply reservoir in Southern Alabama, USA
Topic: Monitoring and predicting human influences on landscapes and ecosystems
Text: For two decades high total organic carbon (TOC) levels in Converse Reservoir, a water source for Mobile, Alabama, have concerned water treatment officials due to the potential for disinfection byproduct formation. TOC reacts with chlorine during the drinking water treatment to form disinfection byproducts, some of which are carcinogenic and regulated under the Safe Drinking Water Act. This study evaluates how urbanization will alter watershed derived total nitrogen, total phosphorus and TOC inputs to a source water reservoir. Converse watershed, on the urban fringe of Mobile, is projected to undergo considerable urbanization by 2020. Base scenarios using 1992 and 2001 land cover are coupled with 2020 projections of land use and applied to 62 subwatersheds within the greater 267 km2 watershed. The Loading Simulation Program C++ watershed model is used to evaluate changes in nutrient concentrations (mg L-1) and loads (kg) to Converse Reservoir. From 1992 to 2020 simulated urban and suburban growth of 52 km2, which is an increase in urban area of 19% to a total of 22%, resulted in more than doubling TN and TP total loads and median monthly loads (kg) to Converse Reservoir. TN and TP loads increased by 114 and 120%, respectively. From 2001 to 2020 simulated urban and suburban growth of 32 km2, which is an increase in urban area of 12% to a total of 21%, resulted in an increase of 51 and 54% in TN and TP loads (kg), respectively. Results indicate total streamflow increased by 13 to 22% due to urbanization. Urban growth generally increased monthly flows, but led to lower flows in drought months. Results indicate future median TN and TP concentrations (mg L-1) are 37 and 75% greater than 1992 concentrations, but TOC concentrations are 10% lower in future urban scenarios. An increase in urban flow caused TOC loads (kg) to increase by 14 to 28%, despite lower future TOC concentrations (mg L-1). The largest average increase in monthly watershed-derived TOC concentrations from TOC loading occurs in July, ranging from 0.20 to 0.42 mg L-1. This increase may necessitate additional drinking water treatment due to watershed urbanization, depending upon existing reservoir TOC concentrations. Post-urbanization source water TOC concentrations will likely increase more than predicted by the watershed model, which simulates only watershed-derived increases in TOC. The larger TP loads following urbanization will likely support increased algae growth, thereby increasing internally generated and overall TOC. Expected urbanization by 2020 increased TN and TP loads by at least 50% and TOC load by at least 14% to a drinking water supply reservoir. Unless additional drinking water treatment is implemented to remove increased TOC, the result of urbanization in this source watershed is increased carcinogenic disinfection byproducts in drinking water.

Land change scenarios for resolving urbanization–conservation conflicts at the edge of metropolis
Topic: Monitoring and predicting human influences on landscapes and ecosystems
Text: Increases in population and per capita land consumption continue to threaten the persistence of natural ecosystems and create conflicts between demands for development and protection of valuable natural resources. To address this issue, we focused on North Carolina’s Southern Piedmont, a biologically diverse and productive region at the intersection of three rapidly expanding metropolises. Our primary goal is to identify locations which have considerable potential for future development as well as significant value for natural resource conservation. We explored land change scenarios to predict conflicts between these competing priorities and offer alternative futures for meeting development demands while minimizing impacts on natural resources and landscapes. We identified nationally and regionally significant conservation priorities according to recommendations from the North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission and the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources. Historic land change patterns were mapped using Landsat imagery over four time intervals (1976, 1985, 1996, and 2006) in order to understand the process of urbanization and its potential influence on these conservation priorities. We then used logistic regression of socioeconomic and environmental factors driving urban expansion to estimate regional development potential. This allowed us to identify locations where both the potential for development and value for conservation are high. Using this modeling framework coupled with trends in per capita land use and population projections we forecasted multiple land change scenarios, both following the historical trajectory and applying various conservation planning strategies that increased the cost of development in locations with higher conservation value. Our results indicate that if historic trends continue, over 30% of land developed between 2010 and 2030 will conflict with existing conservation priorities. Our model based on an alternative future that integrates conservation planning, shows that it is possible to reduce future conflict by 75% without hindering demands for urban growth. We also examine how these varying strategies for biological conservation may impact landscape pattern and ecosystem services. The implementation of land use planning guidelines that reduce conflicts between future growth and resource preservation will benefit community planners, developers, and conservation organizations, as well as the people who rely on these natural systems for the services they provide.

Forest Ownership Across the Urban-Rural Spectrum
Topic: Monitoring and predicting human influences on landscapes and ecosystems
Text: The fate of the forest lies largely in the hands of those who control it. In the United States, over half of the forestland is privately owned and of this, nearly two-thirds is owned by families and individuals. These proportions increase dramatically across much of the eastern U.S. – 87 percent of the forests in the South is privately owned and 74 percent in the North. Understanding who these landowners are and what they intend to do with their land is critical for understanding the future of the forests. We will use data on landowners’ attitudes and behaviors from the USDA Forest Service’s National Woodland Owner Survey (NWOS) combined with population data from the U.S. Census to investigate differences among forest landowners across the urban to rural spectrum. From the NWOS we know that there are over 11 million private forest owners in the U.S. and that the vast majority of these owners own relatively small parcels of land. This has important has implications, or at least high correlations with, landowners’ attitudes and behaviors. For example, as the size of a forest parcel decreases, the relative importance of amenity values increases, importance of financial objectives decreases, and the probability of managing the land for timber similarly decreases. As we move along the urban-rural spectrum, we see changes in, among other variables, the size of forest holdings; size of holdings is negatively correlated with population density. We will also discuss the implications of projected changes in population density on forest ownership patterns and the resulting consequences for forests.

GROWTH MANAGEMENT AND PATTERNS OF LAND COVER CHANGE IN THE CENTRAL PUGET SOUND, WASHINGTON, 1986-2002
Topic: Monitoring and predicting human influences on landscapes and ecosystems
Text: Urbanization and the resulting changes in land cover have myriad impacts on ecological systems. Monitoring these changes across large spatial extents and long time spans requires synoptic remotely sensed data with an appropriate temporal sequence. I used a multi-temporal (1986, 1991, 1995, 1999, 2002) land cover dataset for a six-county area surrounding the Seattle metropolitan region to explore changes in landscape composition and configuration before and after the implementation of 1990 growth management legislation. Between 1986 and 2002, urban land cover increased from 8 to 18% of the study area, while lowland deciduous and mixed forests decreased from 21 to 14%, and grass and agriculture decreased from 11 to 8%. The intensity of urban land cover also increased with 252 km2 in Heavy Urban (80-100% impervious surface) in 1986 increasing to 629 km2 by 2002. Increasingly across all time periods, the majority of new areas were located outside of the 2002 urban growth boundaries (UGB; from 58% of new urban between 1986-1991 to 74% between 1999 and 2002). In addition, new developed land outside of the 2002 UGB increased more rapidly than areas within the urban growth boundaries. For example, more than three times the land area was developed outside of the UGB between 1999 and 2002 than inside (417.3 km2 and 140.1 km2, respectively). Urban sprawl, as estimated by the amount of developed land per capita, increased overall within the region, but the more rural counties within commuting distance to cities showed the highest rate of increase. These results potentially indicate that the intended effect of the 1990 Growth Management Act to direct growth within the urban growth boundaries may not have been accomplished by 2002. The ecological systems that are present in this region were likely significantly altered by these changes in land cover. Multi-temporal land cover datasets can be used to develop models forecasting future land cover change or combined with ecological data to explore how landscape change affect ecological systems.

Tropical warming and the dynamics of endangered primates
Topic: Monitoring and predicting human influences on landscapes and ecosystems
Text: Many primate species are severely threatened, but little is known about the effects of global warming and the associated intensification of El Niño events on primate populations in general or on platyrrhine (NewWorld) monkeys. Quantifying the role of climate change in the dynamics of primates is crucial because, globally, up to one-third of primate species are threatened with extinction. Elucidating the role of climate change is further necessitated by the potential for large-scale climate change to synchronize the population dynamics of widely dispersed species, which could exacerbate the extinction risk of multiple populations. Here, we documented the influences of the El Niño southern oscillation (ENSO) and hemispheric climatic variability on the population dynamics of four genera of ateline (neotropical, large-bodied) primates. The effects of large-scale climate and resource availability (tree phenology) on ateline primate population dynamics were quantified using autoregressive density-dependent models; these models were also used to assess the influences of climate on potential primate resource availability. We then examined the level of interspecific synchrony among the primate populations and quantified the role of large-scale climatic variability in synchrony. All ateline genera experienced either an immediate or a lagged negative effect of El Niño events. ENSO events were also found to influence primate resource levels through neotropical arboreal phenology; fruit and flower production were positively affected in El Niño years and negatively affected during La Niña years. Resource availability was found to have either a lagged positive, lagged negative or immediate negative effect on primate population density. Furthermore, the more frugivorous ateline primates showed a high degree of interspecific population synchrony over large scales across Central and South America attributable to the recent trends in large-scale climate. These results highlight the role of large-scale climatic variation and trends in ateline primate population dynamics, and emphasize that global warming could pose additional threats to the persistence of multiple species of endangered primates.

Characterizing Ecosystem Health in Fragmented Northeastern Forests
Topic: Monitoring and predicting human influences on landscapes and ecosystems
Text: The goal of this project is to identify a set of key indicators of forest ecosystem health in an increasingly fragmented landscape, test the reliability of those key indicators, and create protocols through which those indicators can periodically be checked to monitor forest health trends in the forest ecosystem. Throughout the world, forests are being rapidly converted to other land uses and land covers; the Highlands region of Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania is a region that exemplifies such a transition. The Connecticut Highlands Project employed a comprehensive forest inventory in combination with recent land cover analysis to understand the impacts of an increasingly fragmented landscape on the forest ecosystem. We collected data on woody and herbaceous vegetation, various abiotic landscape characteristics, and avian diversity on forty plots distributed randomly in adjacent subwatersheds of the Housatonic River. These plots were classified along a gradient of forest continuity as core, perforated, or edge forests. We found that cover of invasive shrub species was greater in the watershed with more fragmented forests. Further, cover of invasive shrubs was significantly greater in edge forests as compared to both perforated and core locations. Bird species abundance was lower in the less fragmented watershed; we are continuing analysis of bird observations to investigate patterns related to forest configuration and distribution of indicator species. Preliminary analysis also suggests that some environmental characteristics were comparable across watersheds and landscape fragmentation categories. For example, disease prevalence and standing dead basal area, commonly used to identify forest health issues, showed similar distributions in these categories. Next steps in the investigation will focus on identifying major predictors of ecosystem health for forests at the urban margin. We expect that some of the measures will be more sensitive to fragmentation impacts than others, and we will continue to focus on these specialized predictors. Following our analysis, a revised measurement protocol will be implemented in a second watershed pair in 2010. We found evaluating ecosystem health at the landscape scale is a challenge where forests are increasingly interspersed with unforested areas. Tested methods for monitoring fragmented forests, which we aim to contribute with this project, will be critical to understanding ecosystem processes in the exurban environment. Funding for this project was provided as part of a USFS State & Private Forestry Redesign Grant. In addition to the authors, collaborators included Audubon Connecticut, University of Connecticut, Connecticut DEP – Division of Forestry, and White Memorial Foundation.

UrbanCrowns: A Photo-Based Crown Assessment Tool for Urban Trees
Topic: Monitoring and predicting human influences on landscapes and ecosystems
Text: Trees are important assets to the urban environment. They improve air quality by reducing temperatures, lowering VOC emissions, and removing harmful pollutants from the air. They can improve water quality by intercepting and filtering rainfall, thus reducing urban runoff and the pollutants they carry. Strategically placed trees can also reduce heating and cooling energy use by providing shade in the summer and windbreaks in the winter. In addition to the environmental benefits urban trees provide, they add aesthetic, social, and economic value to urban communities as well. The urban environment, however, can often produce added stresses to these trees. Soil compaction, limited root growth, groundwater contamination, and high pollutant levels are just a few of the factors that can influence tree growth and vigor. Because of the benefits that urban trees provide and the associated risks they face, it is important to monitor trees for early indications of declining health. The most common indicator of declining tree health is a reduction in crown foliage. There are few tools available, however, for accurately measuring the crown characteristics of urban trees. Therefore, the U.S. Forest Service Southern Research Station has developed a crown analysis software tool to assist with urban tree monitoring programs. The program, called UrbanCrowns, can be used by anyone with or without a background in urban forestry to analyze urban tree crown characteristics using only a single, side-view digital photograph and a few easily collected field measurements. The output provided by the software includes estimates of tree height, crown height, crown diameter, live crown ratio, crown volume, and foliage transparency.

Quantifying the dynamics of human footprint: Do landscapes exhibit a legacy of sprawl?
Topic: Monitoring and predicting human influences on landscapes and ecosystems
Text: The encroachment of urbanization on natural and agricultural landscapes is an acknowledged threat to ecosystems and to the sustainability of the essential functions they provide. High impact patterns of disjunct and low density development, pejoratively know as sprawl, are conceptualized in classic urban growth theory as a dynamic and ephemeral condition that is transformed to “non-sprawl” with densifying inputs of population and infill. Recent evidence suggests that sprawling patterns resist densification, and are in fact increasing at a pace greater than population growth. We evaluated these hypotheses by conducting a longitudinal study of per-capita land consumption, or human footprint (HF), at four decadal time steps in a rapidly urbanizing metropolis. Patterns of urban expansion in the rapidly growing Charlotte (NC) metropolitan region were mapped from historical satellite imagery and integrated with concurrent population estimates to quantify a generalizable, spatially explicit HF metric over the large, heterogeneous region. Remote sensing analysis revealed over 340,000 ha of forest and farmlands were converted to development between 1976 and 2006, increasing the built environment to 22% of the non-water area. Lands converted at a mean rate of 31 ha per day, outpacing population growth 10 to 1. On average inhabitants of the region used 400% more land in 2006 than in 1976, with HF increasing from 0.07 to 0.366 ha per person during the period. Growth and sprawl are related but different: Apportion methods estimate only 36% of area converted was attributed to population growth, with 74% attributed to sprawling consumption patterns. Repeated measures analysis of HF found areas with high antecedent values resisted densification and rose faster than other areas. These results suggest there is a legacy of persistent sprawl-indicated pattern, and that additions of infill and new development have not been accompanied by proportional increases in population, resulting in increased HF values regionally.

The Impacts of Housing Development on Birds and Amphibians in Upstate South Carolina
Topic: Monitoring and predicting human influences on landscapes and ecosystems
Text: Housing development has been linked to loss of biodiversity but assessment over large areas has been difficult. GIS technology has been recently used, however, to identify areas that face environmental risk associated with development. Our study focused on an eight-country region in upstate South Carolina that harbors important bird and amphibian species and is experiencing a high degree of developmental pressure. We produced two models in our study: 1) a threat analysis based on developmental pressure, habitat preference of focal species, and management authority of the landscape and 2) a range reduction model based on developmental pressure, percent of each species range protected in our study area, and the ability of species to resist disturbance. We selected two bird (Eastern Towhee-Pipilo erythrophthalmus and Swainson’s Warbler- Limnothlypis swainsonii) and two amphibian species (Upland Chorus Frog-Pseudacris feriarum and Shovel-nosed Salamander- Desmognathus marmoratus) as focal species, with each pair consisting of a broadly- and narrowly-distributed species. We used 2000-2008 census data to project the growth rate of housing units for the ten-year period (2000-2010), and used this trend to estimate developmental pressure for 2020 and 2030. We reclassified distribution maps from the SC GAP project to reflect habitat preferences of our focal species and reclassified wild lands to reflect the degree of protection provided by different management authorities. Threat analysis indicated that the north-central region of our study area faced the greatest threat for all four species because of increases in housing units and limited protection provided. The northernmost region of our study area, located within the Blue-ridge ecoregion, faced the least threat because of its high degree of protection by federal and state authorities. Projected range reductions for amphibian species were similar, with Upland Chorus Frog negatively affected by development in unprotected habits and Shovel-nosed Salamander negatively affected by an inability to adapt to human development. Between bird species, projected range reduction for Swainson’s Warbler was greater than that of Eastern Towhee because of its high susceptibility to development pressure. Our results showed that narrowly distributed species had a greater percentage of their ranges protected, yet faced increased threats because of their inability to tolerate human disturbance in rapidly expanding urban areas. Species with similar proportions of their range protected and a similar ability to respond to disturbance, may serve as surrogate species to predict species declines in response to development pressure. We suggest using a threat analysis in conjunction with a simple range reduction model that accounts for biological responses of species, can help identify and compare species at risk from housing development.

Assessing and Understanding Environmental Impacts of Mountain Bike Technical Trail Features in Urban-Proximate Parks
Topic: Monitoring and predicting human influences on landscapes and ecosystems
Text: Balancing growing and increasingly diverse recreational demand with conservation objectives presents a significant challenge for managers of parks and open space along urban-rural interfaces, especially when information about recreational activities and associated environmental impacts is lacking in many places. Mountain biking is a case in point. The estimated fifty million mountain bike riders in the United States as of 2008 consist of several rider types (free-ride, urban, cross country) that desire various experiences. Much of this demand is being absorbed in urban-proximate parks and natural areas. In an effort to help park managers and users understand mountain bike specific impacts, this study developed a protocol for GPS mapping technical trail features (TTFs) found on mountain bike trails and for assessing their environmental, social and managerial attributes. TTFs are armoured natural features or built structures that enhance mountain bike riding experiences through physical and mental challenges. This protocol was pilot tested in Legend Park, an urban park in Clayton, North Carolina where mountain biking was popular and a variety of TTFs existed. The collected data were analyzed across three TTF groups (ground, aerial and traverse) which were based on the nature of experience enhanced by the features. Comparative analysis found significant differences in site attributes and environmental impacts between TTF groups, including trail and landscape slopes, feature footprints and soil erosion as indicated by trail incision adjacent to the features. Significant impact differences were also found within TTF groups for root exposure, canopy openness, vegetation removed to construct feature, feature condition, and trail type. Results from this study address basic questions about the types and environmental ramifications of these TTFs which are growing in presence along the urban-rural interfaces where official or unofficial mountain biking activity occurs. The proposed protocol provides managers with an adaptable tool for assessing and evaluating mountain bike specific impacts. Information gathered using this or a similar assessment tool can help justify management decisions about existing mountain biking trails and TTFs while informing planning decisions for future mountain biking sites with regard to their environmental sustainability.

Changing landscapes, shifting values: Land use dynamics at the rural-urban interface in Calaveras County, California
Topic: Monitoring and predicting human influences on landscapes and ecosystems
Text: Calaveras County is situated in the Sierra Nevada foothills of California, in the midst of the Sierra Nevada mountain region, but within close proximity to two large metropolitan centers. Given its proximity to urban centers and amenity-rich character, Calaveras County, like other Sierra Nevada foothill counties, is experiencing population growth and attendant land use change. Calaveras is a place poised on the edge of rurality, a county directly facing the onward march of urban encroachment. In other words, Calaveras County defines the rural edge of the rural-urban interface. As a nexus of land use debates and decision-making, the study of the rural-urban interface provides insights into the social, ecological, economic and other processes occurring across the real or perceived boundaries between rural and non-rural. In a place like Calaveras County, where there are numerous quality of life migrants living side by side with long-term resource-based land users, negotiations of meaning and value must occur – and they are not without conflict. This study takes a political ecological view, investigating how ecological systems are impacted by, and also conversely impact, human systems. The study examines how different actors view the land use changes that are occurring in Calaveras County, exploring the different roles actors play in the process and discovering which factors figure into the land use decisions being made. The three case studies selected for the project and the preliminary findings of the study will be presented.

Roof Renovations by Application of Planted Material for the Purpose of Saving Energy Costs and Storm Water Recycling
Topic: Restoring/rehabilitating terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems ltered by urbanization
Text: The purpose of this project is to introduce a new method of renovation techniques on the historical buildings on Dauphin Street in Mobile Alabama by retrofitting the roofs of these buildings by using natural living materials. This also includes the Regions Building parking deck on St. Joseph’s Street. Mobile, Alabama is city that is in need of updating its stormwater management practices and is lacking sufficient connections with the city in relation to viewpoints towards the Bay as well as the rest of the city. This project aims to correct these problems through stormwater collection, filtration, and reuse as well creating public space on one of these roofs that generates tax revenue for the city, assembles connections to the city through viewpoints, as well as with recycling the rain-water for re-use as grey water. This project is designed to collect and hold rainwater that encounters the roof and filtrate the water with the plant material. The rainwater would then be drained into a cistern that then pumps the water back within the building for grey water usage. The implementation of these green roofs also help the building conserve energy significantly through natural insulation and also help solve certain ecological problems within the city like urban island heat effect. The green roofs are also intended to add aesthetic diversity into the urban environment by providing a variety of colors and textures to the everyday experience of the city’s inhabitants as well as visitors. These aesthetical attributes are intended to give potential for places of social interaction that can in turn generate tax revenue back into the city. Green roofs that have been implemented in various areas within the United States particularly in Seattle, Portland, and Washington D.C. have proved to conserve energy through the added natural insulation up to approximately 30 – 40%. Through the reuse of the water that is collected on these roofs, water costs can be reduced up to 90%, conserving water both through reduced water needs as well as sewer costs. The project at hand aims to accomplish these same statistics at maximum efficiency while also providing desirable place for public interaction that can in turn generate income back into the municipality through tax revenue. Since green roofs are useful in decreasing the urban heat island effect in urban settings this project aims to decrease the average temperature in the City of Mobile by 5 to 10 degrees. This discussion of green roof renovations on existing historical buildings will outline necessary elements of green roof construction as well the following benefits of it’s implementation economically as well as ecologically. The goal of this project is to inform the city officials from the City of Mobile of the successfulness and the beneficial elements of green roofs that can hopefully create a template for future development in different urban areas throughout the United States.

Stormwater Management in Dauphin Street Area, Mobile, Alabama
Topic: Restoring/rehabilitating terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems ltered by urbanization
Text: The purpose of the project is to retain, collect, store and reuse stormwater in Dauphin Street area, Mobile, Alabama. This project seeks to control the quality and quantity of stormwater in the proposed area, in order to reduce surface runoff and urban heat island effect, and reutilize water. Since Dauphin Street was built in 18th century, and still has impervious surface and old stormwater system. The impervious surface does not allow water to infiltrate into the ground. Most runoff goes directly into the drainage system, and exit into the Mobile Bay. This condition could cause flooding while the system is overwhelmed by the additional flows. Stormwater management is the management of stormwater runoff, often using water retention facility, to provide controlled release into receiving streams (watertechnology.net). Stormwater runoff causes pollution, erosion and flooding problems. These problems occur because we altered the land and changed the way that water moves through the landscape. Also, because this system lacks cleaning function, it cannot eliminate pollution in the water, and thereby pollutes rivers, lakes, and the ocean. For this project, I used rain cisterns, bioswales, and porous pavement to reduce and infiltrate runoff on the site. 1) The pervious concrete replaces existing parking impervious pavement. 2) Bioswales are intended to slow, collect, clean rainfall in parking lot, also to provide shade for users. 3) A cistern was used to collect rainwater on the roof, and reuse it. After these installments, it is likely heavy runoff and water pollution would be alleviated for the chosen site. The author proposes the following seven-tiered approach: 1) The ability of these facilities to slow, collect, and clean stormwater; 2) Longevity of these facilities; 3) Aesthetic value; 4) Utility value; 5) Educational value; 6) Cost-efficient; 7) To promote establishment of regulation about stormwater management. In areas like Mobile, with heavy rainfall and massive evaporation, a solo stormwater management may not comprehensive. A combination of rain cistern, bioswales, and permeable pavement could reduce surface runoff more effectively than a single method. This paper will theoretically point out both successes and failures of this infrastructure. The proposed stormwater management method and permeable design provide a model for future planning.

Stewardship Footprints and Potential Ecosystem Recovery Across the Wildland to Urban Interface: An Organizing Framework for Puget Sound Research
Topic: Restoring/rehabilitating terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems ltered by urbanization
Text: Landscapes across the wildland to urban gradient face increasing environmental pressures. Government agencies are able to identify and formulate policy to address these issues, yet do not have adequate resources to restore or mitigate many environmental systems. Urban natural resources stewardship is an emerging research and management approach within the US Forest Service. One research goal is to understand the role of citizen engagement and NGO efforts for ecosystem recovery. Stewardship activity generates potentially large and cumulative effects across landscape systems. In Seattle and Tacoma alone, there are nearly 600 organizations that conduct stewardship activities. Yet there is little literature on this benefit-based perspective of human agency in large scale systems. This paper will introduce new research in the Puget Sound region that investigates: (1) the scope, diversity, and outcomes of citizen based stewardship efforts, (2) environmental and social factors that motivate these efforts, and (3) the system wide effects – or “stewardship footprint” – of on-the-ground activities. In this work stewardship refers to the specific actions of engaged individuals, groups, and communities acting on behalf of natural systems. Stewardship action may be guided by peer leadership, environmental groups, ecologists, or professional planners, but is often compelled by personal connections to a particular place or declining natural resource. Landscape and regional scale benefits can accrue from local stewardship efforts, yet systematic studies of the spatial distribution and the outputs, outcomes, and co-benefits of stewardship have not been pursued. In the performance measurement literature, outputs are thought of as the work done by those working within a particular program (e.g. number of trees planted) while outcomes are not what the program itself did but the broader social and ecological consequences of activity. Little is known about how outputs and outcomes may or may not align with the purposes of stewardship programs. Co-benefits of stewardship are the supplemental or secondary social, economic, and ecological effects that are a consequence of ecological restoration. Co-benefits are a bridge to broader societal or community objectives. Initial studies of stewardship within urban areas suggest that environmentally targeted activity is a stated purpose, but that social consequences are at least as important to many organizers and participants. Within a Puget Sound regional context this paper will summarize current literature on stewardship, and present a framework that addresses the topic across the entire urban to wildland interface, noting potential organizational dynamics, outputs, and outcomes that are shared or may differ across the landscape gradient.

Changing Roles in the Southern United States
Topic: Science delivery and exchange of information for natural resource professionals, policymakers, and private citizens
Text: The Changing Roles: Wildland-Urban Interface Professional Development Program provides natural resource agencies with a set of flexible resources to build knowledge and tools to successfully tackle WUI issues. Changing Roles consists of four training modules: (1) Introduction to wildland-urban interface issues and their interconnections, (2) Tools for effectively managing natural resources in the wildland-urban interface (3) Strategies for understanding and influencing the development of land-use policies and plans that affect natural resources, and (4) Communication skills for working with interface residents and community planners and leaders. The modules are extremely flexible and can be modified and used in a variety of combinations to create training programs of variable lengths to address the needs of each agency/organization. The Changing Roles (CR) program was first introduced at a train-the-trainer (TTT) workshop in 2006, which was attended by more than 60 participants from the 13 Southern States and Puerto Rico. In 2008 a CR training coordinator was hired to further implement and coordinate the CR program. Her main priorities for the first year were to increase the awareness, capacity, and delivery of the CR program. To increase awareness, several outreach materials and tools were developed and/or improved, including a listserve, a quarterly e-bulletin, and an expanded web presence. To increase capacity, a second TTT workshop was held in April 2009, at which fifty new people were trained. Recent efforts have focused on program delivery and implementation through in-person presentations and workshops and webinar sessions accessible on-line. Priorities for 2010 include the development of a new module which will include fact sheets, case studies, exercises, and success stories address emerging issues in the wildland urban interface (WUI) and continued use and exploration of additional on-line learning environments. For more information contact Nicole Wulff, nmwulff@fs.fed.us, 352-378-2451, www.interfacesouth.org/changingroles.

Oregon Forests in Transition: Education initiatives to address the effects of forest fragmentation along the urban-rural interface
Topic: Science delivery and exchange of information for natural resource professionals, policymakers, and private citizens
Text: Oregon’s land use laws provide a planning structure that uses city boundaries and urban growth boundaries to restrain development in designated areas and keep development out of zoned forest and agriculture lands. These land use laws encourage dense development within the city limits, provides a boundary for future growth and development (Urban Growth Boundaries), and provides a planning structure to protect water quality and significant resources (e.g. wetlands, open spaces, etc.) in these same areas. However, local jurisdictions have enough freedom to make land use decisions that significantly degrade these natural resources in the urban environment. The challenge is to help cities and counties recognize that forests, salmon habitat, water quality and other significant natural resources in urbanizing areas are best protected from development impacts by having a long term plan balancing dense “smart” growth with open space management. The Oregon Department of Forestry and Oregon State University Extension Service have joined together to deliver a variety of education programs aimed at elected officials, planning departments, developers, landscape professionals, contractors, and small woodland owners. These efforts include an Oregon-Washington regional forests in transition conference, the creation of a BMP guidebook for protecting trees on development sites, an on-line urban forestry class, a Green Industry seminar, several presentations at OSU mini-colleges, and a spatial analysis coupled with presentations on how forest cover has changed in four different communities. The spatial analysis focused on several fast growing communities in Western Oregon, analyzed forest and impervious cover changes over the past 15 years, and predicted how this will continue to change with current land use laws. This presentation will highlight these programs, share lessons learned, and provide examples on how these programs could be adopted in other states. These efforts were part of the national FREMO (Forest Resource Education for Municipal Officials) program funded by the USDA.

Engaging Family Woodland Owners: A Social Marketing Approach
Topic: Science delivery and exchange of information for natural resource professionals, policymakers, and private citizens
Text: Engaging Family Woodland Owners: A Social Marketing Approach Mary L. Tyrrell, Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies; Brett Butler, USDA Forest Service Family Forest Research Center; and Purnima Chawla, Center for Nonprofit Strategies. Decisions made by millions of family forest owners are key to the sustainability of U.S. forests. Collectively, their actions enhance or degrade the landscape; therefore how they manage their forests and whether or not they convert them to other uses is of significant public interest. Under the auspices of the Sustaining Family Forests Initiative (SFFI), we have developed a practical set of tools to help conservation and forestry professionals reach more landowners with effective stewardship messages and to develop programs that better serve the needs and values of the landowners. These tools were developed from research on landowner values, objectives, and behavior, as well as interviews with natural resource professionals in forestry and conservation throughout the country. With data from the USDA Forest Service’s National Woodland Owner Survey (NWOS) and landowner focus groups, and using social marketing analytical tools, we provide new insights into the 70% to 80% of landowners who are not reached with traditional outreach programs. Using multivariate statistical analysis, we have identified four “types” of landowners based on their broad orientation towards their land: Working the Land, Woodland Retreat, Supplemental Income, and Uninvolved. We further analyzed the NWOS data using a standard social marketing technique, the prime prospect analysis, and found that two-thirds of landowners who own between 10 and 1,000 acres in the United States have a stewardship mindset but are not engaged in managing their woods (e.g. they don’t have management plans, they don’t consult foresters, and don’t participate in programs such as cost-shares and easements). This is an indicator of how many people you can expect to influence to engage in stewardship and woodland management programs. Then, looking at what attitudinal segments they fall into will give you ideas about how to influence them. Results are packaged on a website, Tools for Engaging Landowners Effectively (TELE) at www.engaginglandowners.org. There are three parts to TELE: A primer on targeted marketing; landowner data broken down into attitudinal segments as well as demographic and behavioral segments (e.g. new owners; those with a conservation easement); and a communication planning tool.

Patterns of rural character
Topic: Science delivery and exchange of information for natural resource professionals, policymakers, and private citizens
Text: The loss of rural character from the American landscape is occurring at an alarming rate due to increased development pressure and changes to historical development patterns. The definition of rural character is unique to each community and typically refers to the physical and social structures created by the activities and settlement patterns of small communities within the context of a unique region, or biophysical landscape. This study focuses on the contribution of settlement pattern as an important factor to the rural character of a place. Patterns of historical rural development were established by the settlement activities of early American European migrants, typically comprised of small, compact towns surrounded by large areas of open space (Campoli et al., 2002). Until the middle of the 20th century, new growth was relatively compact and incremental, reflecting established town layout and structure (Arendt et al., 1994). Unfortunately, most new development does not respect the historical patterns of land use and usually occurs in the form of poorly planned, haphazard low density developments scattered across the rural landscape, otherwise known as suburban sprawl (Barnes et al., 2001). Subsequently, the rural landscape becomes fragmented, resulting in the loss of aesthetic qualities, diminished sense of community (Tilt et al., 2007), and economically and ecologically inefficient land utilization (Ryan, 2002; 2006). The western United States is a beautiful and unique place characterized by large open spaces composed of agrarian landscapes and pristine natural areas. These amenities are attractive to those seeking to escape the congested, urban areas on both the west and east coasts. The character of small communities is heavily impacted by sprawl development, mostly due to inadequate land use zoning or regulations. Also, the tradition of strong private property land rights in America has generally been resistant to adding additional restrictions on land owners. As a result, the rural character of the western landscape has been dramatically altered in a relatively short time. In Utah, the problem is exacerbated by several factors. The growth rate is 2.7% (U.S. Census Bureau, 2008), which is one of the highest rates in the country. Also, the majority of the Utah landscape is characterized by wide open vistas through red rock and sagebrush steppe, with very little forested areas. These vast expanses are arguably the most striking aspect of the landscape. Even small changes, such as a new road cut or the addition of a two-story house can have major visual impacts. Additionally, the loss of prime agricultural land is raising concern. A recent poll in Cache County, Utah found 71% of residents favor increasing property taxes $20 million annually to assist critical lands preservation efforts (Loomis, 2008). In a time of economic uncertainty, residents are becoming aware that it will become increasingly important to protect local land based resources. Comprehensive planning is essential for successful long-term protection of rural character (Daniels & Bowers, 1997). The Governor’s Office of Planning and Budget in Utah, partially funding this study, has recognized the need to provide an effective method or tool to assist planners in better identifying, quantifying, and protecting rural character for their respective communities. Many small communities do not have adequate or comprehensive general plans in place, nor the financial means to develop one. Some plans that do address rural character are vague and lack specific definitions or goals. Where they exist, zoning and subdivision codes do not always represent planning goals. Many are insensitive to existing town structure and design, and ignore natural and cultural features of the landscape. In some cases, conventional zoning has translated to the loss of valued rural features and simply translates into “planned sprawl” (Arendt et al., 1994). Rural character is eroded gradually, under the assumption that new development will improve the quality of life and economic opportunities for residents. Often the opposite is achieved when the unique features of the place are lost. Although residents may not be supportive of certain changes within the community, they lack the tools to guide development in an appropriate and desired fashion. Involvement by the public is central in developing a plan to protect the qualities of rural character perceived to be important by the community (Hester, 1985; Arendt et al., 1994; Ryan, 2006). The critical planning challenge is the need “…to grow gracefully, in a manner consistent with the traditional character of the community, so that new development fits harmoniously in the town fabric and helps to reinforce the local sense of place” (Arendt et al., 1994: 8). Because rural character is inherently based on human values, inquiry into rural character necessarily involves several disciplines and the analysis of the multifaceted theoretical construct of “sense of place.” Architecture and planning have provided valuable tools to analyze form and pattern in the landscape. Sociology has studied the importance of human interactions and social structure in relation to place. Psychology has addressed the deeper innate and cognitive aspects of human preference for certain types of environments. Geography gave the scientific study of sense of place its theoretical basis by linking space with human activities (Tuan, 1974; Relph, 1976), and provides valuable new tools for spatial analysis and modeling through Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology. This study will attempt to address the “what” of sense of place as related to rural character by combining theory and scientific method with visualization and design techniques, fusing aspects of these different perspectives of sense of place into a format that can be applied in planning. This study provides a framework to detect large-scale patterns within the landscape that indicate rural character quality. The goal is for this information to be developed into a planning tool, for use on a statewide basis. If components of land settlement patterns contributing to rural character can be assessed using spatial criteria, this information can be mapped throughout the state and made available to the public as a tool to guide future planning efforts. One small community in Utah was selected as the study site for this project. The central research questions for this study are: 1) What are the spatial patterns of land use that are associated with rural character in Utah? 2) What are the physical criteria which define the patterns of rural character, and how can they be developed into a framework for a rural character planning tool? The methods utilized for this project identify large-scale landscape patterns conducive to rural character qualities and their respective criteria. Individual components are delineated by their physical criteria and isolated for study. The components selected for analysis are limited by the use of existing datasets, straightforward GIS mapping techniques, and by landscape patterns generalizable to the majority of rural communities in Utah. Using GIS datasets and mapping techniques, these components are mapped individually as rural character indicators and then compiled to represent a gradient of rural character values within the study site. To verify and evaluate results, the composite map is compared to a visual assessment map of the same area. This map is based on an evaluation of pattern type observed from aerial photos. This study explores and acknowledges the complexity of this subject area, with the goal of creating clarity and legibility of this important topic within the planning process. Because rural character is often perceived as too complex and subjective to define, this important subject is often under-represented by methods that favor quantitative analyses. While this model employs deductive, quantitative methods to define the variables, it also allows individual community values and preferences to influence the final results. This model provides a simple framework for a new planning tool to help visualize and prioritize important aspects of rural character from which communities may begin to develop strategies to accommodate inevitable growth.

Using i-Tree Applications to Assess the Effects of Urbanization in Desoto County Mississippi
Topic: Science delivery and exchange of information for natural resource professionals, policymakers, and private citizens
Text: Desoto County, MS is the Northwestern-most county in Mississippi and borders Shelby County (Memphis), TN to its south. Traditionally an agriculturally-based county, it has experienced rapid urbanization in the past 10-15 years as it is becoming a bedroom community for Memphis. Several groups including NGO’s, municipal planners, and natural resource managers within the county and its municipalities are interested in learning how this urbanization is affecting tree canopy cover and stormwater run-off patterns. The i-Tree suite of urban and community forestry analysis and benefits assessment tools were developed by the U.S. Forest Service to help communities strengthen their urban forest management and advocacy efforts by quantifying the structure of the urban forest as well as the environmental services those trees provide to the community. The i-Tree Eco application is designed to use field data from randomly located plots at the landscape scale along with local hourly air pollution and meteorological data to quantify urban forest structure, environmental effects, and value to communities. The i-Tree Hydro tool is designed to simulate the effects of changes in tree and impervious cover characteristics within a watershed on stream flow and water quality. The Hydro application is scheduled to be released in the Spring of 2010. Urban Forestry South and Mississippi State University Extension are partnering with several local and state agencies to develop a comprehensive i-Tree Eco and Hydro project that will include a county-wide assessment as well as an assessment for each of the five municipalities in Desoto County. The project will include pre-project education workshops to inform local, state, and regional professionals of the i-Tree tools and how they can be used as well as an extensive i-Tree Eco training workshop to demonstrate all aspects of conducting an assessment project. This extensive workshop will teach students and professionals how to collect the data necessary for the Eco and Hydro models. The results from this project will give local planners and natural resource managers information regarding forest structure, canopy cover estimation, carbon storage and sequestration, biogenic volatile organic compound emissions, energy conservation and pollution removal benefits by land cover type as well as quantifying and illustrating hourly and total changes in stream flow and water quality. This presentation will discuss the science delivery techniques and materials used to help organize this county-wide effort with the local partners. The project will also help Urban Forestry South better understand the resources needed to successfully organize this type of project, and develop additional science delivery material that can help other communities conduct their own landscape-scale urbanizing assessment projects more efficiently.

Green Infrastructure and your Growing Community: Forest Resource Education for Local Officials
Topic: Science delivery and exchange of information for natural resource professionals, policymakers, and private citizens
Text: North Carolina and other southeast states are still experiencing tremendous growth and unprecedented loss of forestland. Forest loss leads to decreases in water quality, air quality, habitat, and quality of living. Much of this forestland lies “just outside of town” limits. The forestland itself is often the driver for development, providing a beautiful setting for new homes and a scenic drive to work. NC Cooperative Extension, in association with the Forest Resource Education for Municipal Officials (FREMO) project of the University of Connecticut is providing local elected and appointed officials with a basic understanding of the relationship between forests and water quality in the outward growth of towns. Green infrastructure can provide transportation, recreation, and water quality. These are just a few of the benefits county and municipal governments can expect from including forestland in their planning efforts. The online and downloadable curriculum ties together basic watershed science, stormwater, economic benefits, and cost of services as they relate to forestland. A well informed local leadership is one of the first steps to improving decisions about local planning issues and they pertain to natural resources. The presentation will highlight the basic education provided officials as well as some case studies of similar efforts in NC.

Forests on the Edge
Topic: Science delivery and exchange of information for natural resource professionals, policymakers, and private citizens
Text: The Forests on the Edge project identifies areas across the United States where private forest contributions the economic and social well-being of the nation may be negatively affected by various threats. Specific contributions include habitat for at-risk wildlife species, provision of clean water, and timber volume, whereas specific threats include housing development, wildfire, insect pests and diseases, and air pollution. Research methods are based on scientific application of geographic information systems (GIS) techniques to national digital data layers. Studies to date have included assessments of threats to forest contributions across the conterminous USA using watersheds as the basic spatial assessment unit. Results indicate that by 2030, housing densities will increase substantially on more than 57 million acres of private forestland across rural America. Watersheds where private forests provide the greatest contributions to water quality, timber volume, and at-risk species habitat are found primarily in the Eastern USA, as are watersheds most threatened by housing development and air pollution. Watersheds where private forests are most threatened by wildfire, forest insects, and disease are distributed more uniformly across the conterminous USA. The results of Forests on the Edge studies have been published in a series of public reports and peer-reviewed journal articles and have been used extensively by public officials, non-governmental organizations, and universities to raise awareness of and support for prudent development and forest conservation. The project is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, and received the Department’s Honor Award for Excellence in 2008. The presentation will provide a quick overview of entire suite of Forests on the Edge products and how they have been used by others. Key points to be made are that : 1) nationally-consistent GIS data can be used to identify areas across the country where important private forest contributions could be affected by housing development and other threats; 2) the presentation of this data in a format compelling to Forest Service partners can help increase public awareness of the need to conserve private forests; and 3) the creation of additional and/or more detailed data would facilitate efforts to conserve private forests and the many benefits that they provide.

InterfaceSouth: Providing Resources for a Changing Landscape
Topic: Science delivery and exchange of information for natural resource professionals, policymakers, and private citizens
Text: The South is one of the fastest growing regions in the United States, with an estimated population increase of 1.5 million people each year and 65 of the top 100 fastest growing counties in the nation. The southern U.S. also consistently has the highest number of wildfires per year of any region in the United States. Some of those fires are quite large, as in the case of the 1998 Florida wildfires. These wildfires brought the challenges of working and living in the wildland-urban interface to the forefront for the U.S. Forest Service (FS) and other natural resource agencies across the southern U.S. Shortly after these fires, the FS Chief conducted a review of the South and identified the WUI as an area on which to focus research and information efforts. In response, the Forest Service conducted an assessment of the research, technology, and education issues that confront the wildland-urban interface in the South. This assessment, titled Human Influences on Forest Ecosystems: the Southern Wildland-Urban Interface Assessment, served as the foundation for the establishment of InterfaceSouth (formally know as the Southern Center for WUI Research and Information) in 2002 in Gainesville, Florida. InterfaceSouth joined Urban Forestry South in 2006 to become part of the Centers for Urban and Interface Forestry, the technology transfer centers of the Southern Research Station work unit SRS-4952 Integrating Human and Natural Systems in Urban and Urbanizing Environments. This integration combines expertise in urban forestry and wildland-urban interface (WUI) research and technology transfer for the southern region and nationwide. InterfaceSouth has focused much of its efforts on WUI fire issues, though it also focuses on a range of issues related to the urbanization of southern forests. Through a partnership with the University of Florida and the USDC National Institute of Standards and Technology, InterfaceSouth has focused on minimizing fire risk to property owners by evaluating the flammability characteristics of commonly planted shrubs and commonly used mulches, two items that can contribute to wildfire house damage. This information is also being used in the development of physics-based models to assess and predict fire spread through communities. From this research and other research projects, information is developed in a variety of formats to reach diverse audiences, including homeowners, policymakers, and natural resource professionals. One such format is publications and on-line decision support tools. The Fire in the Interface fact sheet series explains WUI fire concepts related to understanding fire and how to select appropriate plants for landscaping in interface areas. The Quick Guide to Firewise Shrubs ranks the 34 shrubs that were tested in the flammability study in to high, moderate, or low flammability categories. These fact sheets and guides provide information to help homeowners and communities take personal responsibility for the protection of their homes in the event of a wildland fire. Additionally, at the request of the Southern Group of State Foresters, InterfaceSouth developed Fire in the South II: the Southern Wildfire Risk Assessment. This publication brings attention to the critical fire situation in the South, presents the key findings of this region-wide assessment, and demonstrates through case studies some of its practical applications. The book titled Forests at the Wildland-Urban Interface: Conservation and Management provides information, strategies, and tools to enhance natural resource management, planning, and policymaking at the wildland-urban interface. The on-line flammability key includes a step-by-step ranking method based on easy-to-identify characteristics such as type of plant (tree, palm, shrub, or vine), distance between the ground and branches, denseness of the plant, and other factors. After completing all of the steps, the homeowner can identify plants as “not firewise,” “at-risk firewise,” “moderately firewise,” or “firewise.” This method allows fire professionals and extension personnel to make Firewise lists that can help residents make informed decisions about landscaping in fire-prone areas. Another important resource is the InterfaceSouth Web site (www.interfacesouth.org), which provides resources such as a literature database, a photo gallery, and a listing of WUI news and events. Individuals also can sign up for the SWUINET listserve, through which listserve members receive the Interface South Update, a monthly electronic bulletin focusing on critical WUI issues; the InterfaceSouth Post, which is sent out weekly and offers timely information about upcoming conferences and topical news items; and Leaves of Change, a quarterly bulletin about the activities of InterfaceSouth, its sister center Urban Forestry South, and partners. InterfaceSouth has also begun to use social media to deliver information about the unit’s research projects and products and interact with our clientele, using technology such as Twitter and blogs. The Web site is now also available in Spanish, as are many of the fire publications. In addition the Web site offers training program materials, such as the Changing Roles: WUI Professional Development Program and the Wood to Energy Outreach Program. The Changing Roles materials teach new skills necessary for managing fragmented forests and communicating effectively with interface residents and enable participants to apply these skills through interactive exercises. The Wood to Energy Outreach Program aims to increase community understanding and discussion about the possibility of using wood for energy in the South. Demonstration sites are another valuable format that InterfaceSouth has participated in to help raise awareness about Firewise issues. InterfaceSouth participated in a Firewise Retrofit project demonstration site in Alachua County, FL with a coalition of federal, state and local partners. The project, which is documented in a Flash presentation on the Web site, involved retrofitting a Florida home and its surrounding landscape to reduce its vulnerability to wildfires, as well as other hazards. InterfaceSouth’s advisory council, the Southern Wildland-Urban Interface Council (SWUIC), provides feedback regarding research and technology transfer needs and exemplifies the diversity of InterfaceSouth’s partners and program areas. SWUIC is a chartered council of the Southern Group of State Foresters and consists of members from state forestry agencies, the U.S. Forest Service (Research, State and Private, National Forests), universities, cooperative extension, and non-government organizations. InterfaceSouth has brought together natural resource professionals from fire, urban forestry, forest health, community planning, and a range of other disciplines to work together towards approaching and solving interface issues. These partnerships and the resources provided by InterfaceSouth are vital to the southern U.S. as the wildland-urban interface continues to expand.

Tree growth modeling to improve tree size and canopy coverage predictions
Topic: Science delivery and exchange of information for natural resource professionals, policymakers, and private citizens
Text: Municipalities use ordinances and zoning to ensure that tree canopy cover is replenished during land development. Many localities have refined their regulations to enforce their long-term canopy cover goals, requiring developers to plant trees to provide minimum canopy cover for the project site within a specified period of 15 to 30 years. To fulfill site plan requirements, developers specify tree planting densities based on anticipated canopy growth during the attainment period. However, these calculations are typically based on observations of trees growing in non-limiting environments such as nurseries and arboreta, which are not representative of typical urban conditions. Urban conditions are oftentimes very heterogeneous due to the great degree of disturbance providing various soil conditions ranging from adequate to unacceptable. Hence, tree size predictions cannot be generalized for all planting sites and designs and have to be based on research resulting in models that include the factors that significantly influence tree growth. Planting plans and development regulations that do not account for urban soil constraints on tree growth may over-estimate the capacity to replenish canopy cover or even under-estimate the potential of the site leading to bigger trees than suitable. We are currently researching urban tree growth rates in highly urbanized conditions to reduce the uncertainty about tree canopy development and improve canopy cover management practices. Our research objectives are to 1) determine which soil chemical or physical factors best predict tree development, and 2) estimate tree growth rates across a range of tree pit sizes and soil conditions. During summer 2008, we collected site and tree data on 80 trees in Washington DC (Quercus phellos and Zelkova serrata) and 100 trees in Jacksonville, FL (Quercus virginiana) of various sizes. We chose trees in confined spaces to avoid any unaccountable influences due to escaping roots to nearby lawns or yards. The soil conditions the trees are growing in were determined by measuring the available soil volume, taking composite samples for soil chemical and texture analyses, and measuring the penetration resistance and moisture content of the soil. Tree parameters, namely tree height, canopy dimensions, and DBH, were measured to determine the development of the tree. In addition, increment cores were taken from each tree to determine the age and its growth rate. Trees in urban setting are exposed to various conditions above and below ground. These conditions result in differences in tree development and thus growth rates. Consequently, we cannot assume a certain age at a certain DBH. By analyzing increment cores for each tree we hope to be able to determine the inflection age of the tree, the age at which the resources were limited and tree growth rate declined. Empirical modeling and tree ring analysis are being used to identify soil parameters that significantly influence tree growth and to quantify changes in tree growth through time. We will present our research findings to date and discuss the implications for managing tree canopy cover in urban areas.

Engaging Land Use Planning Officials on Forest Fragmentation - The FREMO Project
Topic: Science delivery and exchange of information for natural resource professionals, policymakers, and private citizens
Text: It has long been understood that the forested landscape is closely linked to water quality, and, more broadly, the overall ecologic, economic, and public health of our communities. As communities continue to grow and develop, the health of our forest lands is threatened by their conversion to other uses, fragmentation, and parcelization. Because the majority of forested land is privately-owned, the majority of educational efforts seeking to protect the forest resource have focused on individual land owners. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that community land use decision makers are also critical to the sustainability of the forest resource. They make the decisions about where and how to grow, and where and what to preserve that are critical to confronting the continued fragmentation of our nation’s forests. This presentation will highlight one effort to begin addressing this audience - the national Forest Resource Education for Municipal Officials (FREMO) project, which is funded by the USDA. FREMO is an effort to engage and educate local land use officials about the fragmentation of the forest resource, its consequences for overall community health, and what can be done through land use planning to address it. Five states (OR, MN, NC, VT, CT) have initiated pilot projects to look at different ways to engage this audience and establish recommendations for action. This presentation will provide an overview of the efforts in these 5 states, as well as a detailed look at the forest fragmentation study conducted by the University of Connecticut’s Center for Land Use Education and Research (CLEAR). The CLEAR study has tracked the fragmentation of the state’s forestlands from 1985 until today using a tool it developed and has made available to others. The results of the study have been posted on http://clear.uconn.edu and are being shared with local land use officials throughout the state in an effort to encourage changes to local land use planning practices and regulations. This presentation will highlight these efforts and provide recommendations and lessons learned for others looking to reach this critical audience.

Using remote sensing data to understand urban sprawl and land conservation influence on land cover changes
Topic: Spatial/scale aspects of land-use change
Text: As cities grow, land conservation has arisen as main concern for many planners. However, few researches have examined how these two phenomena can affect final land use decisions done by owners of non-protected areas. To address this point, in this work I use cross-sectional models to account for the marginal effect that conservation programs and urban growth have over agricultural expansion in counties of the Midwestern U.S. Following empirical models used to address land use change in the literature, I use as dependent variable the change of non-urbanized land to agriculture (between 1992 and 2001) as well as disaggregated changes from forest, wet and grass lands to agriculture. Main explanatory variables include land under the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and urban sprawl, among others. In order to avoid endogenenity problems from these land use covariates, alternative models consider the use of instrumental variables (IV) defined by the weighted average of the variables (CRP and sprawl) in counties that surround the county under scrutiny. In other words, to predict agricultural expansion in county j, IV models consider as independent variables the average values of conservation land and urban sprawl of its neighboring counties i’s (with i ≠ j). As source of land cover change data, this work analyzes satellite imagery from the NLCD Retrofit Change Product. This product, released in 2008 by the USGS, provides the most accurate (to date) remote sensing data of land cover changes in the U.S. (for the period 1992-2001). In particular, with this resource it is possible observe changes in land covers at a pixel precision of 30x30 meters. Estimation results show that, in average, the percentage of land under the CRP has a larger effect than urban sprawl on the rate of agricultural expansion of a particular county. Both variables present different magnitude and significance depending on the original land cover to be converted to agriculture. The analysis finds that, for example, the impact of the CRP on land conversion from wetlands to agriculture has a lower magnitude and significance than changes from grassland to agriculture.

Land Use Plans and Urban Sprawl
Topic: Spatial/scale aspects of land-use change
Text: The principal objective of this research was to examine whether the management of land use plans for agricultural-rural residential uses influences spatial development patterns in the Knoxville, TN area using rezoning approval model. It is hypothesized that rezoning approval from undevelopable land classifications to developable land classifications are affected by the land use plan for agricultural-rural residential use. To achieve this objective, we compared 1) the overall distance between parcels predicted to be approved for developable land classification and its closest parcels identified as preexisting development under the current land use plans and 2) the overall distance between parcels predicted to be approved for developable land classification and its closest parcels identified as preexisting development under hypothetical land use plan scenarios for agricultural-rural residential uses. The results show that the average distances between parcels predicted to be approved for developable land classification and its closest parcel identified as preexisting development drop under hypothetical land use scenarios with expanded agricultural-rural residential uses. The drop of the average distances is due to increases in the frequency of denials of rezoning petitions for development in the areas of expanded agricultural-rural residential uses. These results indicate that the management of land use plans, particularly a manipulation of the area currently designated for agricultural-rural residential use, encourages the rezoning for development closer to preexisting development. This research is unique in that rezoning approval for development, instead of land development, is modeled, to examine whether government land use plans affects spatial patterns of development associated with urban sprawl. Modeling rezoning approvals prevents bias that may be caused by redundant counting of each developed parcel within a subdivision under the land development model. The predicted changes in spatial patterns due to the manipulations of land use areas under the local land use plan, i.e. Sector Plan, provides a guideline for local government to improve the current land use plans to be consistent with the Growth Plan in Knox County. For example, the UGB, a core of the three types of land classification identified by the Growth Plan in Knox County, does not differentiate requirements from one region to another. Thus, there is a need to redraw more effective classifications of the three types of land. The boundaries for the three types of land may be redrawn by referencing the projections of rezoning approvals based on the current land use plans as well as the hypothetical land use plans. A need exists to focus future research on developing models that can provide more meaningful insights associated with land use plans under the Sector Plan and the three types of land classifications under the Growth Plan.

PEDESTRIAN STREET DESIGN, REVITALIZATION OF DAUPHIN STREET- DOWNTOWN, MOBILE, ALABAMA
Topic: Spatial/scale aspects of land-use change
Text: The purpose of this project is a redesign of Dauphin Street in Mobile, AL to revitalize the historic district of the city. An analysis of the site’s current condition and constraints, suggest a pedestrian street that engages a close interaction with the buildings on both sides of the street that gives way to a connection between the working waterfront and the historic district of the city. Dauphin Street is an important street in the city, not only functional but also historically and culturally. This street connects the inner city with the waterfront working area. The section between South Conception Street and South Jackson Street is the most important block of Dauphin Street. There are many commercial buildings on both sides of the street including restaurants, bars and cafes. The street becomes alive in the night, however in the daytime, it’s almost dead with just very few people walking through it mainly tourist. History reveals that this street once flourished in daily life. Mobile is in need to revitalize this street and change the current condition. My design is based on the solutions to the current problems of Dauphin Street and the city’s water front culture. I analyze the city’s greenspace distribution and find that the green distribution in the city is fragmented, and needs connectivity. I make interventions within the sidewalk culture to stimulate pedestrian activity and I applied a green net theory (green infrastructure) and included permeable pavement technologies to this pedestrian design. Because Mobile is a city based on water and the city’s development is because of the water trade, I use “water” as an idea to range my design, and apply the water texture to my pavement design. The special texture of this pedestrian street is transferable and the city can extend this pattern to other places in the city. There is still much that needs to be solved to implement green streets and green infrastructure in the historic district of Mobile, AL. Planning needs to be coordinated with the different city departments. The revitalization of Dauphin Street, in my opinion, needs to respond to the following the challenges: 1) How to connect this downtown area to the whole city, to attract more citizens get involved? My two block redesign is just a snapshot of that goal; 2) How to redevelop the city to engage a green net and a regional green infrastructure plan? Mobile currently has so few green centers for a big urban area, and 3) How to use green infrastructure to calm the traffic problem on Dauphin Street, the historic district and the waterfront areas?

Bringing Culture and Stormwater Retention Back to the Mobile Bay
Topic: Spatial/scale aspects of land-use change
Text: The purpose of this presentation is to develop an understanding of the importance of America’s working waterfronts and how they affect its surrounding city. Through this project three goals were established. The first was to create different forms of storm water retention practices to act as precedents for the entire city. The second was to create a public waterfront space to connect Mobile’s residents back to its waterfront. The third was to stimulate Mobile’s economic engine to create jobs, income, and residences in the historic downtown area using green infrastructure. Throughout its history, Mobile has always relied on its geographic location for prosperity. Located at the north end of the Mobile Bay, the city has a direct connection to the Gulf of Mexico and also to markets north up the Mobile River. The city has a history of fishing, boat building, rail, and ship commerce. At present there are limited areas for pedestrian access to the waterfront as it is cut off by the ship and rail yards. Mobile’s geographic location also poses a problem during storm events. Due to its old storm system and low lying land, the city is often inundated with backed up storm water. To help to alleviate this problem there is a need for improved storm water management practices. This project seeks to employ design ideas on a specific sight to achieve these goals. The site on the south side of the convention center was chosen after a series of site studies was done. Some of those studies included an analysis of shadow cover done through a 3D modeling software called Sketch Up, section drawings, a design charrette, and aerial images through Google Earth. The site was also chosen because it was a terminus to a few of the busy streets of the historic district of mobile including Dauphin and Government Street. A case study was employed which resulted in valuable design ideas and techniques through studying Michael Van Vaulkenburg's book, Alleghany Waterfront Park. This study is a look at the design problems and solutions his team encountered when trying to tie Pittsburgh, PA back to its waterfront. In my proposed design I suggest implementing a constructed wetland to catch all rain water runoff. Above ground water cisterns were also proposed to capture the storm water runoff from the convention center roof, as well as a constructed vegetated bio-swale were proposed to filter all runoff from the parking area. To bring people back to the waterfront a series of public structures to stimulate the downtown economy were proposed including an open air market, docks, store, restaurant space, and a boardwalk. The boardwalk serves as a connection from the south end of the convention center to the north end as well as a template for further connection. Results so far have shown that there is a need for waterfront connection and better storm water management through green infrastructure; however the appropriate program and scale have yet to be determined.

Path Dependence, Critical Junctures Theory and Urban-Rural Planning: A Water Sharing Case Study
Topic: The relationship(s) between land-use policies and ecological processes/disturbances along urban-rural interfaces
Text: ABSTRACT Path Dependence, Critical Junctures Theory and Urban-Rural Planning: A Water Sharing Case Study By Lorraine A. Nicol In 2006, seventeen municipalities in southern Alberta embarked on a bold initiative to develop a coordinated approach to land use planning to the year 2075. Under the umbrella of the Calgary Regional Partnership, the group ventured into new and untested territory. The territory was also highly conflict ridden with resentment building over decades when the provinces’ Regional Planning Commissions endowed large, urban municipalities virtual veto over the urban-rural development agenda. Despite this history, the municipalities persevered and after almost three years of work, the Calgary Regional Plan (CRP) was unveiled. The key feature of the CRP was the inclusion of density targets that would reduce “urban sprawl” and manage resources ecologically. Water management was critical to the CRP, which envisioned a sharing of water license capacity among member communities on a regional basis. The CRP represented a major breakthrough in water management in the province and a unique situation where water would be moving from the water-rich city of Calgary, to rural users. Unexpectedly, at a meeting of the general assembly of Calgary Regional Partnership members in mid 2009, three rural municipalities voted against the CRP, primarily due to the three’s opposition to density targets contained in the CRP and the proposed voting structure. At that meeting the Reeve of one of those RM’s delivered a blunt message: “…it is clear that there is hangover amongst the CRP partners about old attitudes. The old rural versus urban clichés that have for so long created conflict instead of cooperation between neighboring municipalities continues to rear their ugly heads” (CRP General Assembly June, 19, 2009). Despite the disapproval by these three members, the CRP was submitted to the Government of Alberta for a ruling. This ruling is expected in March, 2010, and will either impose the CRP on the region, or force the Calgary Regional Partnership members back to the table to resolve the outstanding issues. This situation represents a fruitful case study for the employment of path dependence and critical junctures theory. Comparing the views, attitudes and behavior of those municipalities opposed to the plan relative to those who support it, the study will be based on Paul Pierson’s observation that: “Particular courses of action, once introduced, can be virtually impossible to reverse; and consequently, political development is often punctuated by critical moments or junctures that shape the basis contours of social life” (Pierson 2000: 251). While existing planning documents trace the decision-making process to date, this research case study will also analyse the dynamics of the ongoing CRP process as it continues to unfold. At this early stage in this research program, this paper will provide a literature review of path dependence and critical junctures theory and its application which ultimately will help inform a more in-depth program of research.

Structuration of Complex Adaptive Social Ecological Systems: Focusing on Decision Making in Context
Topic: The relationship(s) between land-use policies and ecological processes/disturbances along urban-rural interfaces
Text: Understanding the processes that link social and ecological systems is critical for identifying and building resilience within these interdependent systems. A framework was developed as a heuristic device to explain social and ecological systems as they change over time. Specific attention is given to the decision making process of agents who continually influence the creation, reaffirmation or change to the social and ecological systems. A modern revision of Structuration Theory from the social sciences was combined with theory of Complex Adaptive Systems as applied in Hierarchical Patch Dynamics. Both social and ecological systems contain fast and slow variables that interact as recursive systems. Overtime, these systems develop relatively stable structures that both enable and constrain future actions of a diverse set of agents. This presentation focuses on the land use decision making process of agents situated within the context of the dynamic systems. As such, decision making is framed as a dynamic process where agents recurrently adapt to change in social and ecological systems. Agents’ motivations, capabilities, and knowledge are considered along with the perceived enabling and constraining influences at the systems level. Furthermore, agents’ monitoring of outcomes and adaptive strategies are considered. The framework was originally developed and applied in a case study analyzing the influence of payments for environmental services on landowner land-cover decisions and the resultant provision of environmental services in Costa Rica. That case will be presented along with current modifications to the framework that will be applied to a case study on the decisions of landowners to participate in conservation easements in Alabama.

The Growing Trend of Multi-habitation and its Policy Implication in Korea: a Possible Win-Win Strategy between Urban Areas and Rural Areas
Topic: The relationship(s) between land-use policies and ecological processes/disturbances along urban-rural interfaces
Text: The research deals with a multi-habitation, a new Korean life style in which inhabitants in urban areas reside in condominiums primarily during weekdays and retreat to dwellings in rural areas on the weekends; it was conducted within a win-win strategy between urban areas and rural areas. The study is composed of three parts as follows: (1) A Basic Study on the Growing Trend of Multi-habitation and its Demand Analysis The purpose of this study is to investigate the concept, the necessity, and the increasing popularity of multi-habitation. It also focuses on finding implication messages from analyzing the demand of multi-habitation in a survey which was conducted of 735 people who live in Seoul and the surrounding metropolitan areas in July 2009. Analysis of literature shows that based on five aspects (population structure, social economy, lifestyle, tourism, and housing market) this dynamic lifestyle, multi-habitation, is believed to be common in South Korea, and may increase in popularity in the near future. The results of the survey illustrate that the respondents show high interest in multi-habitation, and their most preferred locations are the green areas around the Seoul metropolitan area, which are one to two hours away by car. (2) Classification of Multi-habitation and the Situation of the Related Lifestyles Through the interviews and site surveys, three major subtypes of multi-habitation were identified to support the theoretical framework: interchange style, sedentary style, and special style. Findings include that first, in order to discuss multi-habitation, the terms primary home and secondary home(s) are introduced. Based on the concept of primary home and secondary home(s), a variety of multi-habitation can be described using spatial locations in urban and rural areas. Second, systematic deregulation for the second home ownership should be made to promote citizens' interchange. (3) Proposal for the development of Korean Farm Stay Model: Focusing on Kleingarten in Japan For this, theoretical research and interviews with site surveys of Kleingarten in Japan, "small garden” in German, were carried out and some strategic conclusions were drawn. The results show that, from the perspective of hardware, (1) Facilities and size should be setup according to the condition in Korea and long-term demands for green tourism. (2) Adequate size of lodging facility, a cottage, should accompany the garden. In addition, from the perspective of software, (1) Administration should make an effort to obtain the understanding and cooperation from the local residents. (2) It turns out that a Kleingarten takes an important role when urban residents move into rural areas or carry out a multi-habitation.

Introduction to the Fourth World
Topic: The relationship(s) between land-use policies and ecological processes/disturbances along urban-rural interfaces
Text: Despite the fact that the United States describes itself as the most developed and industrialized nation in the world, many of its citizens reside in conditions comparable to what can be found in the most distressed areas of so-called “Third World” or “Developing” countries. I have chosen the term “Fourth World” to describe the phenomena of “Third World” conditions in a so-called “First World” environment. As with the Kerner Commission Report of 1968, and the Millennium Breach Report of 1998, it is once again imperative that these concerns be formally identified, researched, and addressed in order for the United States to avoid ultimate collapse as a direct result of its inability to confront the challenges associated with its institutional abandonment and denial of same. Sustainability is currently at the forefront of discussion as part of a larger global imperative; however, the value of ‘green’ is inconsequential when continued sprawling development practices are dictated by historic discrimination and segregation patterns and societal ills. We have documented and reinforced evidence of the United States’ position as the wealthiest and most powerful country on earth, but have limited knowledge of the scale and magnitude of its poverty and degradation. The extent of the distress and abandonment commonly present in the cores of U.S. cities resulting from de-industrialization, historic segregation and discrimination patterns, suburban sprawl, erosion of a viable tax base, racism, inability to embrace the concept desegregation and civil rights legislation, fear, despair, crumbling infrastructure systems, disinvestment in urban school systems, and environmental justice issues, define the Fourth World circumstance within the U.S. The primary objectives of the establishment of the Fourth World position are to explore the institutional abandonment of inner-cities throughout the U.S., investigate the causes which have led to the massive disinvestment, attempt to develop a sense of empathy for the citizens who choose or are forced to remain in these environments, and conduct inquiry which may better qualify interested parties to be engaged in improving the conditions of inner-cities and as to society as a whole. The principal goals of this introductory paper are to define the Fourth World term, discuss the historical evolution of the Fourth World, and describe the condition and current state of the Fourth World.

Landowners’ incentives for forest conservation around El Yunque National Forest
Topic: The relationship(s) between land-use policies and ecological processes/disturbances along urban-rural interfaces
Text: As monetary resources to purchase lands for conservation become more scarce and competitive, the need to explore other initiatives for forest conservation in lands peripheral to protected areas becomes necessary. This is the case for forest conservation around El Yunque National Forest (EYNF) in Puerto Rico, where forest managers are increasingly trying to promote forest conservation incentives among landowners as a way to support El Yunque’s functioning and services. There is, however, a lack of understanding of landowners’ willingness to participate in land conservation programs. This study provides information on landowners' knowledge, understanding, and willingness to take part in three conservation programs promoted by EYNF managers. The results from thirty semi-structured interviews conducted with landowners in the proclamation area of EYNF suggest that there are different obstacles to promote conservation programs among landowners. These include, among others, not knowing about such conservation programs and associated incentives for landowners, lack of trust (and thus reluctance to get involved) on governmental programs, and not wanting to make decisions that could affect the way their inheritors want to manage their land in the future. Consequently, forest managers can not rely on current landowners-driven conservation programs alone; at least not the way the programs are stated. Parallel initiatives should be developed and promoted among landowners for the conservation of forested lands within and around El Yunque National Forest.

Approaches to Development of a Peri-urban Garden Community: South Korea as a Case
Topic: The relationship(s) between land-use policies and ecological processes/disturbances along urban-rural interfaces
Text: Urbanization has long been a significant topic for scholars and practitioners both from developed and developing countries. Technical advancement and socioeconomic improvements have led geographical spaces to be dramatically urbanized. This transformation to urbanization produces better quality of life and amenities to urban dwellers. On the other hand, there is an increase in urban ills, such as polluted urban environments, crimes, segregation between the poor and the rich, decrease of vegetation, and disparities between urban and rural areas. These negative aspects have led scholars, policy makers, and practitioners to study how to reconcile or minimize these problems. However, peri-urban areas have been largely ignored by both planners and administrators due to unclear jurisdictional definition, even though studies claim that peri-urban areas are considered significant buffer zones between the urban core and the countryside. The paper explores ways to provide new roles for peri-urban zones as garden communities. Discussion proceeds from definitional issues for peri-urban communities, to strategies of building a peri-urban community into a garden community using Korea as a case study. Korea’s example provides a study of improving urban environments with more green spaces, and creating new spaces for urban residents who want to pursue a rural lifestyle. Garden communities also offer ways to decrease disparity between urban and rural areas, and suggest an alternative planning concept for sustainable peri-urban areas.

Regional Governance of Natural Resources: Emerging Rural-Urban Interactions in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada
Topic: The relationship(s) between land-use policies and ecological processes/disturbances along urban-rural interfaces
Text: Newfoundland and Labrador is Canada’s most rural province. Its extensive history as a staples economy has resulted in a highly rural population that relies heavily on resource-based extraction and production. In the sixty years since Newfoundland and Labrador joined the Canadian federation there have been major changes in the province’s primary industries, including industrialization and expansion followed by dramatic declines in fishing and forest industries. The early 1990s collapse of the northwest Atlantic Cod stock has dramatically altered the traditional economy of rural NL. Following a long period of federal and provincial policies that often furthered resource dependency and cycles of resource overharvesting and decline, regional (multi-community) approaches to natural resources governance are emerging that place greater emphasis on conservation and public participation. The capacity of rural organizations to take on new responsibilities is threatened by economic and demographic change, including population losses due to urbanization and natural resource collapse. Recognizing limits to local capacity and issues of appropriate scale in ecosystem management, small communities in rural NL have partnered with adjacent communities, often including regional service centres, to pursue integrated management techniques that incorporate multiple land and resource uses and values. Preliminary results of a three-year research project examining rural-urban interactions in Newfoundland and Labrador suggest there are two growing forms of environmental stewardship in this province known for its culture of resource exploitation: 1) urban environmentalism, including a local food movement, and 2) regional management of natural resources with participation of rural resource-dependent communities. While rural communities have taken a leadership role in areas as diverse as watershed, coastal and wetlands management, marine protected area establishment, voluntary fisheries closures and gear restrictions, and community forestry, the power base for decision-making remains centralized in growing urban centres. Rural communities have collaborated with urban-based scientists, government and non-government organizations in these conservation and integrated management efforts. Counteracting a trend of urban values dominating policy and market decisions, with resulting threats to rural community viability, and empowering rural actors to act as stewards of the resources that surround them, however, will require greater efforts to ensure genuine, two-way rural-urban dialogue, mutual understanding and shared decision-making.

The Piedmont Crescent: Integrating Human and Natural Systems
Topic: Topic Not Specified
Text: This presentation is a review of a Forest Service ecosystem analysis project, conducted by American Forests and Michael Gallis and Associates, intended to measure and describe human induced changes to natural systems at the landscape scale within the Piedmont Region of the Southern US (from Atlanta to Richmond VA). This systems based analysis was conducted in 4 distict phases: 1) Understanding Ecosystem Deterioration. The main focus of the environmental community has been the measuring and bench marking of environmental change. These efforts only prove that the environment is continuing to deteriorate at even more rapid rates. While studies of the environment are the foundation for environmental action and are vital to understanding the impacts on the environment, they do not reveal the forces or the factors that are causing the destruction of the ecosystems. 2) Understanding the Human Network. The primary factor causing the deterioration of the environment is the global human network. This network extends around the earth and across the US and continental North America. It is the foundation for economic activity and urbanization as it represents the pattern of reads, rails, airlines, shipping and communications. While the agency has information on the ecosystem and the forests, it does not have expertise or knowledge of the growth and development of the human network. Yet it is the network that is causing dramatic changes in the forest environment and without an understanding of the pattern and dynamics of the network effective environmental management may be impossible. 3) Defining the Relationship of the Environment and the Human Network. An initial assessment of the impact of the human network on the environment reveals five distinct categories. The five impacts are fragmentation, depletion, pollution, erosion and extinction. While these are currently treated as separate problems they are in fact interrelated affects all stemming from the same cause and together having a devastation impact on the environment. 4) Identifying the gaps between current programs and the problems of sustaining the environment in the 21st Century. The Resource Assessment is providing information needed to create a new framework for internal and multi- agency discussion to identify and address the gaps between current practices and realities of managing natural systems in the 21st century. Results and experiences of this analysis will provide a foundation for a new framework for managing the human network and restoring natural systems in the future.

Green Walls: Utilizing & Promoting Green Infrastructure to Control Stormwater in Mobile, Alabama.
Topic: Topic Not Specified
Text: Due to Mobile, Alabama’s coastal geographic location, there are many storms that flow through the Gulf of Mexico and travel north through Mobile. These storms create a great amount of stormwater runoff throughout the city, leading to flooding of streets, water quality degradation, stagnant water-creating breeding grounds for mosquitoes, and many other issues. Urbanization and population growth leads to more impervious surface which in turn increases stormwater quantity and velocity. Retrofitting green infrastructure into the existing urban form of Mobile is an excellent method towards stormwater management. In this essay, I will discuss how utilizing green walls within the built city will provide aesthetic improvements, reduce energy consumption, and help control stormwater. Green walls are not a new form of design. There are two types of vertical green structures. The first is a green façade. A green façade consists of climbing plants or aggressive groundcovers that are trained to cover a specifically designed structure and are planted either in the ground or in planters. The second is a green wall. Green walls are living systems. A green walls’ plant variety far exceeds that of a green façade. Green walls support groundcovers, ferns, low shrubs, perennial flowers, vegetables, and herbs. Green walls are low in maintenance requiring only simple fertilization, watering, and pruning. They provide many benefits including: sound insulation, filtering of air particles to improve air quality, help reduce the urban heat island effect, they create microclimates which helps in reducing the city temperature as a whole, they can moderate a buildings internal temperature, mitigate stormwater- absorbing 45-75% of rainfall, act as a natural water filter and water temperature moderator, and promote green infrastructure. Green walls can also contribute towards several LEED credits when used in combination with other sustainable building practices. The main focus of this research is to inform the city of Mobile of stormwater management possibilities within the built environment through green wall systems. Since a large percentage of urban space consists of building structures, I chose to focus my research around rooftop stormwater management by proposing green walls in an urban environment. My research and analysis consisted of various graphical representations. I have learned that by critically analyzing an urban space accurately using graphic analysis and data, green infrastructure can be innovative and site specific. Rooftop stormwater can be utilized in the creation of on-site infiltration. Green walls can improve the urban environment by mitigating stormwater while also creating healthier and aesthetically pleasing living environments, reducing energy consumption, and also promote green infrastructure to the public through extensive vertical gardening.

Demand for and Supply of Urban Trees: Empirical Study from Citizen Survey
Topic: Urban forestry and urban agriculture
Text: While evidence shows that urban trees are greatly demanded, financial support and supply of urban trees does not match the growing demand. This is not surprise we all demand for more if not costs or lower costs. Another potential cause is the nature of public goods of urban trees: everyone like the other people to provide the services. In contrast with many studies that primarily focused on the demand side, this study is to investigate from both demand and supply and examine how the disparity between demand for and supply of the urban trees from a citizen survey conducted in Alabama. We mailed our questionnaires to 3500 participants and received about 500 valid respondents. This paper summarized the major findings from this survey and examined the factors (demographic and geographical factors) affecting the demand and supply. The results will provide empirical evidence on institutional and policy recommendation for future urban forest development. While we must depend on government budgets for urban and community tree programs, we still need to explore our resources from private and corporate foundations, nonprofit organizations, local businesses and individual contributions, and in many cases, volunteer tree activists and businesses that provide in-kind services and goods.

Urban Agriculture and its function in urban environmental management in the context of adaptation, food security and climate change
Topic: Urban forestry and urban agriculture
Text: The main benefits from urban agriculture (UA) can be broadly grouped at two scales, firstly the micro-scale interventions leading to increased ‘food security’ and ‘income generation’ projects, and secondly the macro-scale impacts of ‘enhanced urban environments’. In regards to the micro-scale interventions aimed at food security measures, there is compelling evidence of the role UA plays either through direct consumption of fresh produce or though income generation from sales of such produce. Likewise the evidence regarding the health benefits from consuming fresh fruit and vegetables is persuasive and numerous studies have clearly demonstrated that major physical, psychological and social benefits are gained as a result of UA interventions. In fact, this body of research work is so extensive that the macro-scale impacts of ‘enhanced urban environments’ is often ignored or neglected in UA research work and likewise in generic urban planning and design, and that is despite the immense benefits such integrated strategies can bring to urban environmental management. Scaling up UA functions to reach, and then maximize, the macro-scale impacts of ‘enhanced urban environments’ requires effective integrated planning and design, which in return brings multiple advantages, such as improved urban sanitation, reduced disaster risk through better urban flood management and slope stabilization of steep hillsides, protection of fragile and vulnerable habitats including riverbanks and wetlands, and reductions in the urban heat island effect. In these cases, UA can be used as a land zoning and control tool (urban farmers being excellent land custodians once farming tenancy is secured), to counter dynamic pressures such as deforestation and settlement encroachment. The actual urban farming practices can then be designed to protect ecologically vulnerable sites from entropic processes such as rapid surface runoff, limited rainwater infiltration and soil erosion. In this paper, UA case studies from a range of cities including Accra, Ghana, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and Hyderabad, India, are used to map out appropriate UA planning and design principles, to illustrate an innovative and integrated approach to urban environmental management with clear policy implications for urban adaptation and climate change strategies.

Market for Urban Forest Carbon Credits
Topic: Urban forestry and urban agriculture
Text: As rapid urbanization continues, so too are urban forests in the U.S. Urban areas currently maintain an average tree cover of 27%, and comprise millions of trees along streets and in parks, riparian buffers, and other public as well as private areas. Studies suggest that there are 4 billion urban trees and another 70 billion in metropolitan areas nationwide. As urban forest area continues to grow, trading carbon sequestered in urban trees could offer economic opportunities for local governments. Similarly, the acquisition of urban forest carbon credits from local cities can be socially, politically, and environmentally advantageous investments for businesses that seek to address their own emissions. As little is currently known about how potential buyers and sellers could engage in trading urban forest carbon credits, this study attempts to fill the gap by surveying prospective buyers and sellers of carbon credits. Findings indicate that local governments have interest, and technical as well as managerial capacities to sell carbon credits. However, they lack essential information regarding market participation. On the other hand, prospective buyers value carbon credits from urban forestry as more desirable than credits generated from most other sources. This presentation will discuss perspectives of both the buyers and the sellers in the context of developing a mechanism for urban forest carbon trading in the U.S.

The Establishment and Development of Green Feng Shui villages in Okinawa
Topic: Urban forestry and urban agriculture
Text: A Feng Shui village landscape features Fukugi (Garcinia subelliptica Merr.) tree lines surrounding every house and orderly laid out roads. Such a green landscape, which was planned or reformed during modern Ryukyuan period around 300 yrs ago, is well preserved in Okinawa Isl. and its nearby isolated islands. But it is still a mystery to the historians when and how these Fukugi trees were planted. In order to clarify the development process of the house-embracing Fukugi trees, as well as the distribution of Feng Shui villages in Okinawa, we have visited almost all the traditional villages and measured the remnant old Fukugi trees. The field survey area is on Okinawa Gundo, which includes mainland Okinawa and its nearby isolated small islands. It was found that huge Fukugi trees older than 200 yrs, cluster around the core area around kami-asagi or haisyo inside the village. Both kami-asagi and haisyo are sacred places where guardian gods were summoned in order to hold ceremonies and rituals. Biggest trees found in mainland Okinawa is estimated to be 370 yrs. Fukugi trees older than 300 yrs also exist in some villages. These old trees might have been planted prior to the period from 1737 to 1750 when Saion was in power, during which Fukugi trees were planned and recommended. Fukugi trees might have been planted as windbreak around the houses before Saion period, however, the current house-embracing Fukugi tree landscape came into being during the Saion period based on Feng Shui concept.

Using Alternative Stormwater Treatment Methods, to Reduce Expenses, Pollution and Generate Sustainable Practices within Local Municipalities
Topic: Urban forestry and urban agriculture
Text: The City of Mobile partnered with Auburn University and Mississippi-Alabama Sea Grant Consortium in the fall of 2009 to do a Study of Green Streets within downtown Mobile. From the study several key problems were identified. One of the major problems was the undersize and outdated stormwater drainage system. With inadequate revenues and manpower to update the system to accommodate the surface runoff Auburn Graduate Students in Landscape Architecture looked for alternative sources to help alleviate the problem. In the study area it was found that almost all of the surface area was impermeable surface and approximately 65% of that area was designated to open surface parking lots. In order to identify key locations that would not interfere with traffic, parades, economic development zones and areas that would allow for maximum percolation of stormwater, a network analysis model was built in GIS to determine key locations for design implementations. From the model four key locations was determined, all being open surface parking lots. After having a design charette with city officials, they oriented our studio by identifying key areas where they had stormwater issues as well as where they wanted to see economic development occur in order to help promote tourism. It was also noted that to do this they wanted to increase local restaurants and bars in the downtown area. In order for this to happen however, the city needed to reduce its over head in order to make it feasible for local market business to occur. Through research and design it was determined that in order to help the city reduce its cost which can in turn reduce the expenses of local business they needed ideas on how to become more sustainable in their spending. By using ArcGIS, Microsoft Excel and Google Sketch-up I was able to generate an in depth analysis of ecological, economical and design techniques to help identify possible solutions to the stormwater problem. From these techniques the idea of developing Urban Farms to help in the reduction of stormwater runoff was chosen to explore. The major question is how they could fit into the urban and economic fabric of the city. The idea behind this is to develop a master plan and design in which the city can implement community gardens that will allow local restaurants use for produce. This will help reduce stormwater runoff into the system as well as generate local business for the downtown district. In order for this idea to come together a historical study of community gardens needs to be completed. How they work, how they are designed in different climates, and how they can be economically benefitting to the city and local businesses. In the end the ultimate goal is to develop a methodology that will allow for municipalities to use Urban Farming to help alleviate stormwater treatment and increase economic development with local businesses.

Measuring Urban Forest Health and Sustainability: Introducing Urban Forest Resources and Institutions (UFRI)
Topic: Urban forestry and urban agriculture
Text: Understanding the functional properties of complex urban environments requires analysis that accounts for the dynamic interactions between core subsystems (resource units, resource system, governance system, and users) of social ecological systems. The Urban Forest Resources and Institutions (UFRI) framework outlines principles for the systematic accountability of biophysical, social, and institutional factors, their interactions, and impacts on each other and the greater spatial extent of an urban forest. The UFRI method uses remotely sensed data, biophysical sampling, household surveys, and targeted face-to-face interviews to collect holistic data on urban social ecological systems and resulting urban forest management impacts. This paper outlines the basic UFRI framework in the context of a pilot study to be conducted in Bloomington, Indiana, USA. Theoretical underpinnings of this approach, essential research questions, and methods are introduced here with the goal of receiving feedback and opinions from the diverse audience usually present within this conference. Ultimately, UFRI provides guidance through research protocols for measuring variables of urban forest health and sustainability that are comparable over time and among different locations.

Impact of Different Mulching Type on Soil Co2 Flux of an Urban Forest Ecosystem
Topic: Urban forestry and urban agriculture
Text: With increasing concerns over raising concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere, forest researchers and managers are currently studying the effects of various arboricultural and urban forest management practices on the carbon dynamics of intensely managed urban forest ecosystems. Soil CO2 flux resulting from soil microbial activity and root respiration is one of the major components of the total carbon flux in forested ecosystems. However, the impact of arboricultural practices such as mulching on the soil respiration remains poorly understood. This limits our ability to understand the carbon budget at the urban forest ecosystem level, thus making it uncertain to predict the impact of arboricultural practices on soil respiration and its feedback. We determined the effects of five different mulch types on the establishment of urban trees for CO2 flux, plant nutrient uptake, shoot growth and selected soil chemical properties. We observed the relationship between microbial organisms and soil respiration and its feedback. To accomplish this study we applied a complete randomized block design and maintained it for two years. We were applied five different biobased mulch types namely: Pine Bark (PB=A). Mixed Hardwoods (MH=B), Pine Needles (PN=C), No-Mulch (D), Mixed Oaks (MO=E), and Pine Bark + Pine Wood (PB+PW=F) on the soil surface in the study plots. We assessed the impact of the five urban tree-based mulch types on net canopy CO2 uptake of Quercus nuttallii saplings and their associated soil CO2 fluxes. In the second year we analyzed the soil and nattall oak leafs for nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, S, B, Al). Soil CO2 flux (μmol CO2/m2/s) and tree canopy net CO2 uptake by tree saplings were not significantly impacted by pine bark and pine needle mulch types. Soil CO2 flux fluctuated significantly during the growing season under different mulch types. The largest increase in soil CO2 flux occurred during the month of May under the mixed hardwood mulch. Soil CO2 was highly correlated with time under all the mulch types. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of five different types of mulches on establishment of urban tree, plant nutrient uptake, shoot growth and selected soil chemical properties.

Preferences for trees in residential landscapes in suburban communities
Topic: Urban forestry and urban agriculture
Text: This study used visual preference survey (VPS) to explore the public preference to the tree in single home residential landscape. In total, 365 University students and 191 residents participated in the evaluation of 14 residential landscapes, which were designed by computer with various tree characteristics and spatial configuration of trees (the presence of amount of tree canopy, tree size, shape, amount, location, and neatness) for same home. The participants were asked to evaluate the scene on a Likert scale from 1 to 5 (1= least preferred; 5= most preferred). The results revealed that trees are important in residential landscapes, and people usually prefer to live in houses with more trees. Large trees with a wide, round canopy also seem to be favored. Whether the tree is close to the house or far away makes no difference on the preference based on the results. Although most of our respondents claimed that they love nature and more natural look residential landscapes, the result suggests that they prefer to live in a clean and well maintained environment. Different tastes between senior and freshman students are noticed. Findings also suggest that students majoring in wildlife science prefer more trees than students majoring in forestry.